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Farming & Rural Systems Economics

This book describes the context of the swine industry in Thailand and reviews the theoretical framework of risk attitudes and risk management strategies. The research employs cross-sectional primary data on swine producers in northern Thailand in order to examine attitudes toward risk using two different approaches, one based on economic models and one based on non-economic models. The relationship patterns between risk sources and risk management strategies are identified using factor analysis. The association of socio-economic and demographic characteristics, farm organisation status, and farm practices with the risk sources and the risk management strategies are examined using OLS regression analysis. The book confirms the importance of risk to commercial swine producers and demonstrates that the most important factor causing the pig cycle phenomenon is the price and production risk factor, a factor which can be managed at the farm level by applying appropriate farm organisation and farm management practices. The five main risk management strategies applied by the swine producers include farm specialization, farm responsiveness, animal husbandry improvement, farm finances and farm reserves.

28.00 EUR

Kommunikation & Beratung

Analysis of Trade Policies, External Shocks, and Economic Bans in a Computable General Equilibrium Approach

Similar to many sub-Saharan African countries, Sudan has inherited a dual economy in the immediate post-independence era where a large agriculture-based rural traditional sector coexisted with a small non-agricultural modern sector. This functional dualism remained until the first oil shipment from the country in 1999. In addition, the inexperienced institutions that took over the management of the economy led to severe interdependent structural problems that slowed growth especially during the 1970s. In addition, the agricultural policies, which have been followed since the mid 1960s, favored the expansion of cash crops, motivated by their high export value, and overlooked the important contribution of food crops cultivation in ensuring food security. To tackle these problems, consecutive governments launched series of development plans the majority of which were either adjusted or terminated due to policy failure or government change. Apart from the planning problems, the recurrent drought, civil conflicts, and recently economic sanctions have aggravated the situation. Against this background, this book provides comprehensive assessment and deploys analytical tools that simulate various policy options for Sudan taking into account all these interrelated problems. The book takes up these issues in a framework of single country and global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Models together with their detailed Input/output Table (IOT) and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The analysis proved the appropriateness of these tools for simulating a wide range of policy interventions and external shocks, including trade liberalization, exchange rate devaluation, taxation, agricultural efficiency improvement, drought, and economic sanctions. This value added is particularly evident in light of the shortcomings of other approaches that were employed for similar goals, and their lack of the analytical depth of CGE models reflected in their inability to capture intersectoral forward and backward linkages.

25.60 EUR

Farming & Rural Systems Economics

Recently, the interaction between natural resources and agriculture practices has been appreciated as highly significant in natural resources management. Population growths, urbanization, in addition to the dramatic fluctuations in rainfall are defined as dynamic factors affecting natural resources management and sustainability in farming. This interaction had imposed additional pressure on land in the marginal areas in Jordan. In these areas, the farming family struggles to cultivate crops and raise livestock irrespective to the mentioned factors. Accordingly, land degradation is linked by a chain of cause and effect with rural family practices and their level of income in these areas.

This book represents a comprehensive description of different rural families in the marginal areas, regarding their resource use and living standards. Later, the analysis was proceeded to define the socio-economic factors that affect family decisions on land management and conservation, linking farm income to the family perception and decisions for land management and conservation. Following this, different future strategies were applied and assessed to measure their impact on family income and resource use and allocation at the family level.

The results showed the importance of farm income on the perception and the decisions of families in land management and conservation in a causal nexus relation. In that line, the suggested future strategies related to land conservation and management showed a positive impact on the family income, which would promote the importance of the integration between family objectives for having higher income and the proper decisions in land management for sustainability.

28.00 EUR

A Socio-Economic Analysis

The decline in the area of the natural forests due to degradation and deforestation in many developing countries is a critical problem and dominate the policy discourse on sustainability. Forest loss adversely affects the livelihoods of the communities dependent on these forests and leads to the loss biodiversity. The sustainable management of these natural forests is very important from environmental as well as its welfare aspects at the household level. Pakistan like many other developing countries is experiencing a very high rate of deforestation, and most of the country natural forests are under the threat of depletion especially in the North West Frontier Province (N-W.F.P). The rapidly changing demographic structure at the households level, socio-economic characteristics, households’ asset endowments and several institutional constraints at the local level affect the sustainable use of these forests. Poor socio-economic conditions, lack of physical assets, access to off-farm employment opportunities and the prevailing problems in the tenure over the forest ownership leads to unsustainable use and high economic reliance on the natural forests. This book looks at the relationships among households’ socioeconomic characteristics, demographic composition, asset endowments and households’ tenure status and forest economic reliance as well role of the natural forest in households’ welfare. The analysis highlights the crucial role of the households’ socio-economic, demographic composition and access to physical and human capital, off-farm opportunities as well as households’ property rights play in forest use, extraction and economic reliance. The objective of sustainable management of the natural forests in the region can be realized through the socio-economic development, improved access to off-farm jobs, improvement in the human capital and resolving the issue of tenure insecurity through granting secure property rights to the communities living on the forest frontiers. 

28.00 EUR

A Farm Household Modelling Approach

A critical task in developing nations is to transform the underdevelopment mode of production from subsistence agriculture into a commercialized system. The foundation of this book is that broad agriculture sector policies lie at the heart of development and poverty reduction programs in the Sudan. We believe that the faulty agricultural policies in the Sudan are one of the root causes of instability and underdevelopment in general and agriculture in particular. In this book a mathematical programming model was used to investigate the impact of the agricultural policy on farm household decision of resource allocation for market versus subsistence production. This study provides an empirical evidence to support the neoclassical theory that farm households in developing nations behave in rational way by responding to market incentives. However, their responses are restricted by structural and institutional factors, above all the lack of infrastructure, the failure of inputs and capital markets and the low attractiveness of enhanced production technologies. These restrictions are determined or at least influenced by agricultural policy. Therefore, these restrictions are subject of scenario model runs. 

28.00 EUR

Perspectives on the demand-driven Agricultural Technology and Information Response Initiative (ATIRI) in Nakuru District, Kenya

This study offers the opportunity to assess and evaluate the influence of the demand-driven approach to technology facilitation upon target communities. It also enables the enactment of a feedback mechanism in which lessons learnt from implementation of the ATIRI programme, can be used in future, to support development objectives. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics, principle component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regression and binary logistic regressions. 

28.00 EUR

The gum belt area in Northern Kordofan state of Sudan faces successive drought and desertification arising from climatic variation and human use of land. The consequently there is deterioration of natural resources, exhibited by soil erosion and creeping desert. Although measures to rehabilitate the gum belt area and control the desertification exist, the problem of land degradation in the area had intensified. This book evaluates the socioeconomic and financial dimension of the gum belt rehabilitation program for desertification control. The book also seeks to establish the factors that influence farmers’ decision to rehabilitate the gum belt area. A survey of 173 household conducted in 20 villages of Northern Kordofan state in 2003 using questionnaire elicited primary data. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the probability of the farmers’ decision to adoption gum trees to combat desertification and conducted a Costs Benefits Analysis to analyze the economics and financial profitability of gum trees replanting. The financial and economic analysis demonstrate that gum arabic production is financially less profitable comparing with others field crops and the price paid to gum producers is lower than what otherwise would have been paid if producer price was freely set to world market. The adoption analysis reveal that economic status, access to other source of income and more frequent contact with extension services as well as land security increase the probability that hashab replanting as a measure for combating desertification is adopted. To promote gum arabic reforestation, real gum producer price should be maintained;

28.00 EUR

Conservation agriculture is often promoted to address land degradation problem. However the key question is; can conservation agriculture restore the chemical and biodiversity? Does the resotation translate into meaningful for the participating households?. This book answers these questions with emperical data from eastern Uganda. 

Imperical data indicate that there is an improvement in the soil biodiversity in soil cover and slashed plots as indicated by a diversity of weed population. There are also improvements in soil properties in terms of organic matter and soil pH. There were no improvements in Nitrogen availability.

On the socioeconmic aspects improvements were recorded on the ownership and quality of assets, food supply, household savings and value of marketing. As a recommendtion, the author proposes scaling out the benefits of conservation agriculture to other areas experiencing degradation and reduced fallow periods.

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The growing demand of water supply, combined with limited water deposits and their irregular spatial and temporal distributions lead to serious problems with social and economic consequences. The degradation of water resources is often accelerated by farm support policies, which makes these problems more and more difficult. India has the highest withdrawal of water for irrigation purpose compared to the other developing countries. Despite of the higher withdrawals state governments are offering subsidies for agricultural sector to extract the groundwater. This book investigates the impact of subsidized electricity policy on groundwater extractions, crop production and its influence on the economic values of groundwater as a supplementary source. On one hand, the subsidized electricity prices have a positive impact on total water application and production. On the other hand it influences the value of groundwater and stabilisation value of groundwater under conjunctive use. Hence, the book is mainly focused on the supplementation values of groundwater due to lower electricity prices and stochastic surface flows. In order to reduce the stochastic surface flows, it also deals with the management options and its impact on the values of groundwater. In addition, it also shows the impact of community participation on the management of irrigation of systems and the major driving forces that influences collective and non-collective action for conserving the common pool resource.

28.00 EUR

Brazil’s contribution to climate change scenario has been remarkably due to greenhouse gases emissions from land use and land use change activities. In particular case of Brazilian Amazon, changes in land use affect the amount of carbon held in the vegetation and soil. This book contains research findings from a study designed to understand the financial performance of alternative land use and forestry activities to small landholders in Brazilian Amazon with the target of enhancing carbon content in cleared and non-produc- tive areas. Different structures of agroforestry systems as options for carbon sequestration services are analyzed, particularly in relation to income generation for small farmers. Further, specific scenarios were used to explore the impact of some economic and ecological risks that may presumably affect systems’ feasi- bility. The study concludes that agroforestry systems provide a viable combination of carbon storage through enhanced growth of fruit and woody trees. In addition, the results support the view that the presence of carbon payments would contribute to alleviate the losses from decreased yields. The study ends with some policy recommendations for the implementation of carbon programs for small- holders in rural areas in Brazilian Amazon.

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Land tenure security plays an important role in economic performance, income distribution, and natural resource management in all economies. Vietnam implemented its land reform in 1993 to improve land tenure security by privatizing farm land and legalizing its free exchange with the provision of land titles. This book investigates the impact of land reform on farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam using a panel data set with different analytical techniques. The results show that land reform has a positive effect on crop production of farm households in terms of crop inputs and outputs. It also has a strong and positive influence on the participation of farm households in farm land markets, which can promote economic structural change. The operation of farm land markets in the study area has both efficiency and equity effects. It means that it promotes both economic growth and equity. Additionally, forest management in Vietnam, which had been in the hands of the State, has been decentralized through land reform. Farm households become an important agent in forest management after the land reform. Land privatization and titling positively influence the intensity of afforestation by farm households. The economic incentive of farm households to afforest is proven by the fact that the return of this activity choice is higher than that of the most recent alternative of agricultural crop. This means that when designated forest land is endowed to farm households, their economic incentive drives afforestation. The policy implications derived from the findings include: speeding up the implementation of the land reform, securing private property rights of farm households over land, eliminating obstacles to the functioning of farm land markets, revising the efficiency of different forest land users, providing farmers with credit opportunities, promoting economic growth in non-farm sectors, and improving education.

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Diese Publikation stellt die Ergebnisse einer Forschungsarbeit dar, die im Rahmen eines umfassenden Forschungsprogramms im Nahen Osten durchgeführt wurde.

Das Program besteht aus zwei Forschungsschwerpunkte in den Gebieten «Bedouins and land use in the steppe of the Middle East» und «Water resources and water policies». Die wissenschaftliche Arbeit von Frau Salwa Almohamed gehört zum Komplex der «Water resources» mit spezieller Berücksichtigung der

Methoden zur Projektevaluierung. Die Arbeit erfolgte in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Aleppo, Syrien.

28.00 EUR

The uncertainties surrounding the climate and consequences on livelihood in Sub-Saharan Africa is of contemporary interest to researchers and policy makers. This book examines aspects of this in Nigeria. It is a collection of studies and papers by researchers and academics working and residing in the region. In twenty chapters, the dimensions, causes, trends, direction and consequences of climate change are examined. The book presents some adaptation mechanisms and consequences for livelihood.

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Many families in large dry areas in lowland and mountain zones in Nicaragua and Honduras are at a subsistence level and live under unstable conditions. Traditional farming practices and poor efficiency in the use of livestock capital impede the opportunities to improve their living standards. Families with small landholdings or landless farm workers with limited assets and livelihoods that cannot make their living from farming only, they also face great limitations in off-farm sectors. This book seeks to explain the development and determinants from subsistence to market orientation in livestock farming systems and the potential for future development and higher living standards. Farming system approach was applied to analyze family resources use and capacity, and measurements of living standards. Results indicated that the bigger farm size, cattle herds and resources availability, the better living standards of the families. Econometric modeling was applied to explain market participation, market orientation, off-farm sector impacts on farming development, and the development from low income to higher income levels. Linear programming techniques with and without risks modeling was applied for the impact analysis of future development strategies on living standards of families. Strategies identified and tested included diversification of farm income, livestock intensification, and improvement of outputs prices. The study was carried out in a lowland area in Choluteca, Honduras, in a lowland area in Somotillo, Nicaragua, and a mountainous area in Estelí, Nicaragua. Book provides methodological concepts relevant for dealing with farming development in similar and different biophysical and administrative environments as well as income and market relation levels.

28.00 EUR

Evidences from Southeast Nigeria

The issue of population pressure and food production has attracted the attention of researchers for centuries. This book is based on a long term study, over three decades, of communities in southeast Nigeria. The book validates the extant theory of positive relationship between population pressure and food production through a process of intensification, increased technology use and enhanced market orientation. However this process can be aborted through external factors including global macroeconomic framework, migration, urbanization and stagnant technologies, factors which were not considered by preceding theorist on this subject. These factors are shown to have halted, and may have reversed the predicted development path of farming systems having similar characteristics. This is a contribution to the theories in this field of study, and explains the subsisting food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in areas with similar conditions.

28.00 EUR

Der Übergang zur Marktwirtschaft erfordert in ehemaligen Ländern der Sowjet-union umfangreiche Investitionen, die neue äußere Finanzquellen benötigen. Es wird offenbar, dass dieses Problem der ukrainischen Wirtschaft ohne äußere Kapitalanlagen sehr schwierig zu lösen ist. Das Hauptziel dieser Arbeit besteht darin, die ausländischen Direktinvestitionen (ADI) im ukrainischen agrar-industriellen Komplex zu untersuchen und ihre positiven und negativen Auswirkungen anhand einer empirischen Analyse auszuwerten. Außerdem werden die Auswirkungen der ADI zusammen mit den wichtigsten makroökonomischen Kennzahlen auf die Wachstumsrate des Bruttoinlandsproduktes pro Kopf analysiert.
Die Umsetzung dieser Zielvorgaben erfolgt durch empirische Analysen, die auf einer Unternehmensumfrage in den Gebieten von Kiew, Kharkiw, Donezk, Odessa und Lwiw basieren. Mit den Methoden der Feldforschung wurden quantitative und qualitative Daten ermittelt. Die Befragung wurde von 420 ernährungs- und landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben mit ADI und 422 ernährungs- und landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ohne ADI durchgeführt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung hat zunächst versucht, die Auswirkungen von ADI auf die wichtigsten Kennzahlen abzuschätzen. Mit Hilfe der durchgeführten ökonometrischen Analysen, und zwar der Regressionsanalyse der Unternehmen, wurden empirische Ergebnisse ermittelt. Der Analysebefund zeigt, dass die ADI direkt und indirekt auf die wichtigsten Kennzahlen der ausländischen und einheimischen Betriebe einwirken können. Die ADI wirken positiv auf die Arbeitsproduktivität, Export­volumina, Steuerzahlungen und Beschäftigung. Als wichtiges Ergebnis ist festzuhalten, dass Dank der ADI die Wachstumsrate des BIPs pro Kopf gesteigert wird.

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With its vast potential for agriculture, Sudan is still underutilizing his resources. Agricultural finance has been a subject of concern to bring agriculture to its novel epoch. The book attempts to develop a finance conceptualization approach using a consistent conceptual framework that tackles all its multi-faceted aspects in a more holistic manner. The author tries to adjunct the agricultural development objectives e.g. increasing production and yield, poverty alleviation, sustainable livelihoods and food security to the availability of adequate resource funds and finance loans to boost agriculture. The focus of the book is on identifying policies, structures, mechanisms and procedures needed to ensure better capacity and access to effective financial services for the agricultural sector and its sub-sectors. Revising the success factors, constraints, and looking for challenges and future prospects in agricultural finance, the book describes a strategic pathway to efficiently handle agricultural finance problems and gives an outlook to the ways out of the finance inadequacy vicious circle in the Sudan The book is considered an important step in the direction of awareness creation among decision makers/ takers, private sector farmers, international organizations and donors. The book goes beyond seeds and tools to macro level policy analysis  on agricultural credit in the Sudan and adds positively to the many scientific contributions in agricultural financing to achieve food security and resource management.

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The existence of substantial agricultural risk poses severe implications for farmers. Farm families that are heavily dependent on few crops/farm activities are much more vulnerable to the effects of agricultural risk relative to the more diversified farmers. This book seeks to explain the dynamics surrounding agricultural risk and individual farm diversification status faced by farming households, and to measure their impact on household living standard. Fuzzy theory was found to be attractive for the purpose of this study given the presence of categories that are either imprecise, and/or complex in their construction as is the case of the core areas in living standard and agricultural risk. Fuzzy theory is useful in that it provides a mathematical framework for handling categories that permit partial membership or membership in degree. Its application therefore allows for the systematic handling of the vagueness associated with living standard and its explanatory variables, particularly agricultural risk. Several strategies targeting the agricultural risk factor were identified and tested using a linear programming approach. Given however the uncertain environment in which farm planning decision making is undertaken, a fuzzy linear programming model was applied in order to capture the fuzzy nature of this environment. The method involves the resolution of the linear programming problem where all the parameters are fuzzy numbers reflecting the uncertain nature of these variables.

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To understand these issues, this book first focussed on analysis of family resources capacity and use and thereafter investigated living standards measurements of the farm families and finally dealt with future impact analysis of various strategies on family income. The farming systems approach was applied to analyse the family resources capacity and use. Some of the living standards measurements assessed included economic success, economic security, food supply and security and household expenditures of farm families. Data analysis was done by applying different statistical and econometric methods. Results indicated a positive contribution of tea and coffee production to relative food security in both zones. 

Impact analysis of future development strategies was done through simulation with dynamic models at family level based on linear programming. Strategies tested in this study included changes in tea prices, improvement of capital availability among coffee farmers, changes in land utilisation and management and control in utilisation of tea payments.

28.00 EUR

Compendium on the occasion of 15 years Ph. D. Program “Agricultural Economics and Related Sciences” for Students from Developing Countries. Volume II

The compendium Volume I and Volume II are published on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of our cherished “Ph. D. Program in Agricultural Economics and Related Sciences” and the 400th anniversary of the establishment of Justus-Liebig-University

Giessen, Germany. Both volumes contain quite a large number of collections of papers pertaining to the issues and challenges in rural development from former and present students of the program as listed below.

The first volume consists of twenty two papers organized under five broad sub-headings (1st-5th) contributed by the personnel mentioned in contributors’ list below. The first group of papers are in General Equilibrium modelling, which basically deals with

the role of Agriculture in the macro economy using CGE approach. The second block presents agricultural sector models dealing more specifically the agriculture sector. The third section is all about impact assessment of development interventions and socioeconomic status of the beneficiaries in rural areas. Correspondingly, the fourth subsection deals with efficiency and productivity of agricultural production focusing on efficiency variations between one farm and regions applying Frontier Production Function and Data Envelope Analysis. And finally, the fifth chapter highlights different methods and practices about conservation and management of natural resources in order to mitigate environmental problems thereby reducing the hunger, malnutrition and poverty.

The second volume is comprised of nineteen papers organized under six major chapters (6th-11th). Section six contains six papers directly/indirectly analyzing agricultural markets, marketing activities, technology adoption and commercialization.

Accordingly, the seventh section basically analyzes the factor markets and efficient allocation of available resources. The eighth chapter is about rural finance and credit, a major production constraint faced by the farmers especifically in rural areas of developing countries. More critical and catchy issues are included in the ninth chapter “poverty and food security issues”. Topics regarding education and extension in relation to agriculture are presented in the tenth section. And it ends up with the most commonly spoken issue women’s role and capacity to cope with household shocks.

28.00 EUR

Compendium on the occasion of 15 years Ph. D. Program “Agricultural Economics and Related Sciences” for Students from Developing Countries. Vol. I

The compendium Volume I and Volume II are published on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of our cherished “Ph. D. Program in Agricultural Economics and Related Sciences” and the 400th anniversary of the establishment of Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany. Both volumes contain quite a large number of collections of papers pertaining to the issues and challenges in rural development from former and present students of the program as listed below. 

The first volume consists of twenty two papers organized under five broad sub-headings (1st-5th) contributed by the personnel mentioned in contributors’ list below. The first group of papers are in General Equilibrium modelling, which basically deals with the role of Agriculture in the macro economy using CGE approach. The second block presents agricultural sector models dealing more specifically the agriculture sector. The third section is all about impact assessment of development interventions and socio-economic status of the beneficiaries in rural areas. Correspondingly, the fourth sub-section deals with efficiency and productivity of agricultural production focusing on efficiency variations between one farm and regions applying Frontier Production Function and Data Envelope Analysis. And finally, the fifth chapter highlights different methods and practices about conservation and management of natural resources in order to mitigate environmental problems thereby reducing the hunger, malnutrition and poverty. 

The second volume is comprised of nineteen papers organized under six major chapters (6th-11th). Section six contains six papers directly/indirectly analyzing agricultural markets, marketing activities, technology adoption and commercialization. Accordingly, the seventh section basically analyzes the factor markets and efficient allocation of available resources. The eighth chapter is about rural finance and credit, a major production constraint faced by the farmers especifically in rural areas of developing countries. More critical and catchy issues are included in the ninth chapter “poverty and food security issues”. Topics regarding education and extension in relation to agriculture are presented in the tenth section. And it ends up with the most commonly spoken issue women’s role and capacity to cope with household shocks.

28.00 EUR

The Case of the Eastern Jordan Valley

Water for irrigation is a central element of agriculture in the Jordan Valley. Its availability and the individual farming systems' access to this scarce factor decides on the success of production as well as on the therefrom depending living standard of farming families. This book tries to answer the question about consequences for and potential reactions of the different types of farming systems in the realm of the Jordan Water Authority (JVA), i.e. Jordan's executive body for water distribution in the Jordan Valley, to changes in water supply.
Analyses of data from a stratified random sample of 141 families revealed four major classes of farming systems with significant differences in major characteristics of resource endowment, economic success and the role of agriculture in families' economic activities. The collected information allowed for the socio-economic description of the farming systems and the set-up of models for the calculation of expectable future impacts from changes in water supply. 
The model-based impact analyses focused on the most probable future developments, which include decreasing water availability in the Northern part of the Valley, increasing water availability due to rising quantities of recycled water in the Southern part and changes in water prices due to the rising competition for water from other sectors of the economy. Results indicate amongst others that decreasing water quantities in the north would engender a nearly linear decrease in family incomes for about 66% of the farming systems. Increasing water quantities in the south would help to augment family incomes in particular for farming systems from the class with lowest incomes. Rising water prices would affect the family income in all farming systems, whereby families from the class with lowest income would have to bear the strongest consequences, but would not lead to a reduction of the area under cultivation.
The results advocate the distinguished consideration of impacts from changes in the water situation according to the specific situation of families and farming systems in the Jordan Valley.

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Non-Parametric Frontier Approaches

The sugar industry is of great economic importance to the regional economies in the areas where sugarcane is grown in Kenya, and also for the whole economy. However, this industry is faced with economic and environmental problems at the farm level, processing (factory level) and at the marketing level. This book investigates problems at the farm level. Four indicators, which were considered important, were chosen for analysis. These are profitability, economic efficiency, total factor productivity, and environmental performance (efficiency). Three regions (sugar schemes), with different institutional setups (management styles) were chosen. The analyses were carried out mainly by using non-parametric frontier (mathematical programming) approaches. Regarding profitability, the centrally planned region (Mumias) emerged superior, with no cases of negative returns, whilst the other two regions (Chemelil and West Kenya) recorded some losses. In all the schemes, we found that, it is possible to improve the efficiency levels and achieve higher outputs. The TFP levels increased marginally in Mumias, but declined in the other two regions. Finally, environmental problems are dichotomous, with Mumias having nutrient excesses, while the other two regions were mining nutrients from the soil. Different policy recommendations have been suggested in order to correct the shortfalls analyzed for the different indicators.

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This book attempts to analyze the socio-economic development of indigenous people in an changing environment and to assess the future potential for a sustainable socio-economic development in the frame of the cultural settings. The specific objectives are (1) to understand and explain the relations between resource availability and use, as well as the living standard of indigenous families in different ethnic groups; (2) to assess the economic efficiency of resource use and define the development potential of resources under sustainability conditions; (3) to determine the factors affecting decision-making about resource use of indigenous families and the degree of flexibility in decision-making about resource use at the family level; and (4) to estimate and simulate the future development of different indigenous groups and different farming systems of them in order to assess the impacts of future strategies on farming activities and on the living standard of indigenous families.

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Mustafa, Rajaa Hassan: Risk Management in the Rain-fed Sector of Sudan

The rain-fed mechanized agricultural sub-sector of the Sudan has high potential of building a national food stock and foreign exchange earnings, which could contribute substantially to agricultural development and hence the development of the whole economy as well. However, the agricultural production in this sub-sector is generally characterized by a high degree of instability which arises from the nature of the agricultural production that is dependent on uncontrollable weather conditions and unpredictable input and output prices, resulting in instable farm income. It is argued that the adoption of the recommended improved technologies in the rain-fed mechanized sub-sector of Gedaref in Eastern Sudan can increase farm income while diversifying by introducing sheep and gum arabic enterprises to sorghum monoculture may lead to farm income stability. Under these arguments in favor of diversification and use of the improved technology, this book therefore, evaluated different management strategies in this sub-sector under uncertainty. The financial feasibility of different investment and management strategies was evaluated under both; the current traditional and some improved cultural practices. The stochastic budgeting technique using the NPV of farm income as a measure of performance was used in this study to simulate production and market risk over a twenty-years planning horizon on an average farm in Gedaref area. Empirical results showed that the introduction of forest and livestock activities contribute substantially to farm income stability with very low probability of loss at the end of the planning period while the adoption of the new recommended technology also stabilize farm income and guarantee the profitability of the business at the end of the same planning period.

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A Microeconomic and Household Modelling Approach

Increasing foreign exchange problems and the deteriorating prices of traditional export commodities in developing countries are leading agricultural policy makers and donor agencies to seek diversification in export crop production. In Ghana, horticultural crops such as pineapples, mangoes and papaya appear promising because of their high labour intensity and the expanding demand for fruits in industrialized nations. This book investigates the impact of the introduction of non-traditional horticultural exports on food security and livelihood of farm households in southern Ghana using a combination of econometric and mathematical programming modelling approaches. The results show that households engaged in export horticulture are better off than those that do not. Notwithstanding, the chronically poor households are structurally impeded from seizing the opportunities resulting from the export boom due to poor resource endowment and liquidity constraints. Horticultural exports as a source of livelihood among smallholder farmers thus depends on factors that narrow or widen the imperfections in rural markets. Specifically, access to local institutional services, technological know-how, policy environment, trends and stability in international markets and most importantly, their interplay with livelihood adopting strategies are the major determinants of success. The policy requirements include: establishment of more export-oriented agro-processing industries, improving infrastructure to enhance input and market access, encouraging the formation of farmer groups and strengthening of exporter-producer associations, and a policy review on arable land distribution.

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Agriculture remains very important for India. Facing the problem of steadily increasing population, India confronts the permanent challenge of food security. Increasing crop productivity (in monetary terms) through better market access is one of the ways to reach this goal. Applying panel econometric analysis, this book investigates the implications and the influence of market access determinants (road and market densities) on the aggregate crop productivity. The results of the analyses at district, state, and regional level are presented.

It was found that the aggregate crop productivity might be largely improved merely through prompting the states (districts, farmers) to allocate their resources in a more efficient way, without even using more inputs. It is shown, however, that increased use of inputs would be adding to that positive effect considerably. Therefore, this book renders useful quantitative insights into what could be improved, where the state and national governments could step in financially to get a desired feedback from increasingly scarce public investments.

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A Case from Lake Nasser Region in Egypt

The impacts of the agricultural development policies on the environment are of major public concern, in both developed and developing countries. Understanding these impacts requires information on the relationship between agriculture, the environment and sustainable development. In Egypt, the agricultural development policies have embarked on desert land reclamation to establish new settlements by extending the cultivated area. The main destinations of the new settlements are potential areas such as the Lake Nasser region. This book presents a comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of such development activities in Lake Nasser area on the settling farmers and the surrounding natural environment. The analyses proceeded in three steps. It started by analyzing the socio-economic settings of the farmers which allowed for better understanding of their resource capacities, problems and resource management approaches. The second step investigated the impacts of the current development activities on the successful establishment of a sustainable farming community in the area. It relied on a group of indicators that were developed using the properties of the agroecosystems and the main dimensions of sustainable development. The indicators cover the environmental, economic and social properties of the farming systems and emphasize their most potential components and interactions. The book is concluded by suggesting strategies that could improve the socio-economic status of the farming families while alleviating the negative impacts on the natural resources. The empirical results of this book contribute in the operationalization of the concept of the environmental, economic and social evaluation of the sustainable development of agricultural activities.

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China is in the process of growing its integration into the international trading system. At the same time, Chinese government is changing its agricultural policy from taxing agriculture to subsidizing it and paying more attention to increasing the farmers’ income. There is increasing demand for the information of the possible impacts of policy proposals. In this context a Chinese agricultural sector model has been developed in the present study. There are several distinguished features of the present model from other similar models. The model consists of 31 provinces with each province as a market. Inter-provincial trade is analysed. The mixed complementarity programming (MCP) formulation is used to solve the spatial equilibrium problem. The production analysis is based on the positive mathematical programming approach combined with the maximum entropy estimation methods and incorporated into the MCP structure. The model is used to simulated different policy scenarios including shocks from demand, production, trade and regional transportation costs. The model applications show its aptitude and usefulness as a policy analysis tool to support the decision making process in agricultural sector in China.

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Serious soil degradation has great social, economic and environmental impacts, undermining the sustainable development of Inner Mongolia. The conflicts between enormous soil conservation task and limited government budget require soil conservation projects to be implemented in a cost-effective way. But phenomenon such as abandon of soil conservation practices after project term and low voluntary adoption rate have been often observed. The study focuses on the soil conservation measures of converting steep cropland by tree and/or grass planting. This book conducts an economic evaluation of the introduced soil conservation measures to find out their on-site benefits at the farm household level. The profitability of soil conservation measures from farmers’ perspective is a necessary condition for the adoption, but is not sufficient. An adoption model is then developed to examine the main economic, institutional, social and physical factors that affect farm households’ adoption decisions. To promote the revegetation in Inner Mongolia, cautiously designed subsidies for tree planting might be needed for poor farmers and where the land potential is low. But removal of the institutional disincentives and using enabling incentives will have greater and long-term effect.

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A Case Study of the Coastal Region of Quangtri Province, Vietnam

As many parts of the world, soil erosion and land degradation in Vietnam in general and in the coastal area of Quangtri province in particular is an increasing threat to the sustainability in agriculture. Combating soil erosion and land degradation is among the top actions to sustain agricultural production and the livelihood of the rural population. The effectiveness of soil conservation relies mainly on the appropriateness of soil conservation measures and the adoption of the local people as well. This book describes the impacts of soil conservation measures on the sustainability in agriculture and factors affecting farmers’ adoption of soil conservation measures in the coastal area of Quangtri province. A survey was conducted on 144 farm households in 2003. The impact analyses show that applying soil conservation measures positively influences economic, ecological and social dimensions of the sustainability in agriculture. The financial analyses demonstrate that applying soil conservation measures is much more profitable in the long run than without applying. The adoption analyses reveal that more frequent contact with extension services, better perception of soil erosion and land degradation, larger plot size and shorter distance from plots to the homestead, more available labour and higher farm income significantly increase the probability that soil conservation measures are adopted. To promote soil conservation adoption, the extension network should be improved; the suitable plot size should be allocated; indirect incentives such as titled land and appropriate credit programs should be available.

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Farmers have numerous concerns and preferences for variety attributes. Their preferences for the attributes result in variety choice decisions since they value varieties by considering the attributes they embed. Ultimately, farmers’ decisions for variety choice will determine the level of crop diversity. Despite farmers having numerous varietal concerns, most of the experimental works in crop improvement evaluate varietal performance often using yield as sole criterion. Understanding farmers’ preferences for variety attributes is important in the implementation of on-farm conservation and variety adoption strategies. To this end, this book aims to analyze the farmers' perceptions on and preferences for rice varietal attributes and their effect on technology adoption in the Terai region of Nepal. The analytical tools include both descriptive and econometric models. The results show that farmers’ preferences are driven by the need for production, tolerance to stress, consumption, marketing and management considerations. There are important variation in the preference for attributes depending upon the economic status of the farmer, geographic locations and his/her farming objective. Also more than 50 percent of the listed attributes were valued as important by the farmers. This suggested that farmers demand varietal diversity, since it is unlikely that a single rice variety will be good at supplying all of the attributes they value. The results show that the farmers’ perceptions of the technology attributes are important variables in addition to the conventional variables in determining the adoption of modern varieties. It is also revealed that the land heterogeneity, risk considerations, market participation, and preference for attributes are important variables contributing to varietal diversity. As the farmers are the eventual consumers of the product of agricultural research such as variety, their knowledge of the production system and preference for varietal attributes would be valuable input for breeding priority setting, on-farm conservation and the adoption of generated technology.

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A Farm Household Modelling Approach

Cotton crisis in West African countries is not only a matter of trade but also sustainability and gender equity. The introduction of organic cotton in Benin, while offering a mood of solution to the problems faced by the cotton sector in terms of gender equity, generates new dilemmas at household level regarding land and family labor allocation between husband and wife. In the present thesis, the author analyses the determinant factors of the adoption of organic cotton by household and how profitable is cotton production on men and women’s field related to the intra-household productive resource (land and family labor) sharing mechanism in central Benin. Through some simulation exercises by using a nonlinear programming model, the author came to the conclusion that, there are still some possibilities to improve gender equity in income distribution in cotton producers’ household by reallocating the household’s land resource in favour of women. For this land reallocation policy to be more effective, some credit facilities should be given to organic cotton farmers, especially to women.

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Economic and Environmental Analysis in Cameroon

The management of urban household waste constitutes one of the most immediate and serious environmental problems facing the municipality of Yaoundé-city in Cameroon. On the other hand, the mineral fertilizer is entirely imported at an increasing rate in the country. Thus, this book suggests the composting of household

waste as an option which would allow at the same time to clean the Yaoundécity at lower cost, to improve global environmental conditions and particularly to reduce mineral fertilizer use and imports. Hence, the book analyses the substitution possibility between compost and mineral fertilizer as well as the impact of

using compost on the producers of rural areas and on the consumers in the city and surrounding villages in order to find out the optimal compost use and distribution. The field survey results show that composting household waste is beneficial both environmentally (reducing frequency of diseases or pollution costs) and agronomically since compost use leads to higher crop yields. Results from the Cobb-Douglas production function prove that compost use is statistically significant in explaining the yield variation of the main field crops and more importantly, compost is the most productive input for the total farmers group. Using the von Thünen model, it is proved that the household waste management problem in the Yaoundé-city could be solved by just processing the waste into compost in order to be distributed and used for agricultural production in villages surrounding the city. In that way, the compost could substitute mineral fertilizer helping thereby to save part of the imported mineral fertilizer quantity and the total import expenditures in Cameroon.

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A Household Level Analysis

Conducting any research on women’s empowerment in order to reduce poverty as well as promote gender equality is of utmost significance in the context of Bangladesh as well as elsewhere. This book contains empirical research findings from a study conducted in Bangladesh to highlight the marginalisation of rural women at household level. It examines the nature and extent of rural women’s empowerment and the basic socio-economic factors influencing it. Six constructs of women’s empowerment in three dimensions were chosen to develop a cumulative empowerment index (CEI). A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to explore the effects of several socio-economic factors on women’s empowerment. The study concludes that education, training, media exposure and spatial mobility of rural women have the potential to empower them. Specific interventions and coordinated efforts by the government, non-government and women’s organisations as well as rural society for the advancement of rural women’s empowerment sum up the strategy proposed in this book.

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Although land degradation is a serious global problem and widely recognised, its assessment methods in terms of reliability, precision, its economic and environmental consequences are poorly understood. Issues revolving around measurability of land degradation pose a severe challenge to contemporary scientific methods. This book presents stringent analyses of land management and conservation interventions on socioeconomic aspects at family level. The major issue was to isolate the impact of such interventions on small holder farmers in terms of family income, labour use and production possibilities. A with and without strategy approach was applied as a core research methodology. The emperical findings from this study indicate substantial improvement in living standards of families by adopting the tested strategies. The book highlights policy implications of the strategies in form of recommendations. 

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Sporadic cases of severe food insecurity and poverty in the arid and semi arid lands is an important concern to the Kenya Government This book dwells on econometric analysis of food insecurity using fuzzy theoretical framework and principal component analysis focused at the households in Baringo and West Pokot Districts of Kenya. A parallel analysis in Uasin Gishu, a non- arid region, was used for comparison. An analysis to investigate how fuzzy logics affect econometric estimates was also done.  Based on the principal component analysis and fuzzy programming, results show that a reliable econometric analysis on food insecurity can be achieved if at least one variable from each of the following categories is used: Sustainability predictor variables such as yield per unit land or land arability, income related variables, education related variables, access and the role of markets, availability of infrastructure, health and water sanitation factors. It was also observed that fuzzy logics positively change residual variance, mahalanobis distances and collinearity such that econometric parameter estimation process of food security is somehow improved. The results further indicate that availability of roads, telecommunication, markets, income related variables and schools are important in influencing positive household food intake levels in Baringo and West Pokot Districts. Based on these results, food insecurity and other related phenomenon are probably analyzed well when fuzzy logics are used when considering other comparable methods. Since 82 % of the land area in Kenya have similar conditions as Baringo and West Pokot districts these results may be relevant for other parts of the country.

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A case from mountains of Nepal

In many mountainous areas of Asia, the trend of natural resource degradation and socio-economic development vary in the different spatial gradient of the area due to the differentiation of resource availabilities, management, availability and the condition of infrastructure and access to market. Thus, the co-existence of these biophysical and socio-economic problems raised the question of whether the relationship between the resource availability, use and degradation and living standard can be found and which factors determine the future development. This book investigated the possibilities of linking and integrating biophysical condition and the socio-economic development by combining socio-economic and spatial methodologies. Book presents integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, socio-economic and other analytical tools to investigate the farming system development and land use sustainability and test the different future problem solving strategies in order to achieve both sustainable natural resources management and living standard of rural farming families for different scenarios based on the integrated economic and environmental planning concept. It presents the characterising land use dynamics through remote sensing, socio-economic variables through family survey and biophysical situation through resources endowment, geographical accessibility, and connecting people to place through GIS. Study was carried out in a small mountainous watershed in Nepal to examine theory and practice in linking people and environment. Book also describe the land use dynamics and associated social, biophysical drivers of change articulated through human environment interaction. Book address a need for a comprehensive study of linking across thematic domains e.g. social, biophysical and across the space and time scales for research and study with in the context of human environment interactions in some extents. Book provides the methodological concept suitable for dealing the problem with similar biophysical and socio-economic condititon.

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It is important to identify the real needs of vulnerable people so that responses to these will be specific; especially where the paradox of poverty, hunger and misery amidst plenty exists. But, who are the vulnerable groups? What resources are available to them? Is there an underlying relationship between household food security situation and the gender of the household head? What is food requirement? Is there a linkage between factors which influence food supply and food requirement? These are pertinent issues in the development of farming and rural systems in Nigeria. This book serves to proffer some answers.

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The high rate of migration in Sub-Saharan Africa is of contemporary interest to researchers and policy makers. This book examines aspects of this in the southeast of Nigeria. It is a collection of studies and papers by researchers and academics working and residing in the region. In eighteen chapters, the dimensions, causes, trends, direction and consequences of migration are examined. The book confirms the high level of migration, the economic and social forces prompting migration, as well as its consequences for livelihood.

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Agriculture

A Case Study of Zamfara Grazing Reserve

Forest reserve and grazing reserve are becoming an endangered resource all over the world. This is particularly the case in developing countries, where their importance has been underestimated. The mismanagement of such reserves has led to deforestation and land degradation with accompanying dire environmental consequences. The general opinion has been that production practices adopted by farmers in a reserve are the major factors affecting good management and the prevention of degradation. The book provides empirical analysis of the factors driving the adoption of various farm production practices in the Zamfara grazing reserve and the impact of these practices on crop productivity. The book also quantitatively determined the best management practices that will enhance sustainability in the use of the reserve. The results of the study have shown that manure contracting as an option is a better soil fertility maintenance strategy than the crop-livestock combination since manure contracting based farming demands less land and will therefore results in less deforestation and degradation to the reserve. Manure contracting will therefore help in preserving the biodiversity of the Zamfara grazing reserve.

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Farming & Rural Systems Economics

The methodological advancements in agricultural sector modelling over the years are substantial. The literature deals with many aspects of reality, which are not covered in classical mathematical programming models. The advanced developments mainly aim to integrate different methodological elements into a comprehensive modelling framework. The Sri Lankan model developed in this study is the second attempt to model agricultural sector in the framework of mathematical programming approach and the first study on positive mathematical programming approach. Sri Lankan model entails many hypotheses that correspond to early work of positive sector modelling. Model design and hypothesis are mainly grounded on classical PMP approach combined with standard partial equilibrium trade models. The model applications show its aptitude and the usefulness as a policy analysis tool to support the decision making process in agricultural sector of Sri Lanka. In this context more experience has to be gained by continuous application and rationalization of the policy making process. Beside the necessity for permanent updating, methodological improvements and extension should be followed in the future.

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Protecting natural resources base is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable agricultural development in many developing countries. In Madagascar, combating land degradation and soil erosion always get a top priority in order to sustain the livelihoods of the rural population in hilly areas and pursue a sustainable growth of the agriculture based economy. Therefore, this book investigates the linkage between various land management practices, the use of soil conservation measures and performance at the plot and farm levels, as well as the factors affecting farmers’ decision-making in the adoption of soil conservation measures. The results show that soil conservation measures have a small but long-term positive impact on crop productivity and farm income. Institutional factors in terms of tenure security, extension service, access to capital market and various socio-economic features of the farm-households, were key factors in determining adoption. Since former studies in Madagascar have revealed positive external effects of soil conservation measures that exceed by far their on-site effects, potentially efficient solutions for a sustainable land use and rural development in the study area rely upon providing farmers with adequate institutional frame conditions as well as with conservation-linked subsidies in order to encourage conservation activities, particularly on marginal lands.

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Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Findings in Honduras

There are high expectations that education can help to reduce poverty in rural areas. This book investigates the inter relation of education and the living conditions of farm-households. On one hand the access to factors of production (land, labor, capital, and education) have an impact on the total household income. On the other hand total household income determines the access to factors of production. The previous relation is influenced by regional conditions. Regional conditions that reduce transaction cost (asphalted roads, electricity, health services) and allow working in the complete chain of value (field production, processing and commercialization) have a strong positive impact on the production capacity and income of farm-households. Regional conditions are in hands of regional planners, policy makers, researchers, and personnel in charge of implementation. The education of these actors determines the efficacy of the policies. Higher education level is found to be more related to higher household income at regional and household level. Improvements in the higher education system are required as precondition to improve primary and secondary education. In relation to methodologies “Man Power planning” is a methodology that can be used to identify the needs of the country to achieve social and economic goals, later methodologies that identify relation among variables can be used to define policy interventions. Finally cost-benefit analysis can be used to identify options to reduce cost at the moment of educating the critical human resources needed.

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There is a widespread belief that traditional livestock keeping in Southern Madagascar poses a serious threat to the environment while contributing little to the livelihood or food security of the population. This book analysis the role of livestock within the framework of household food and nutrition security focusing on the role of cattle as a safety against crop shortfalls. The study compares two consecutive years: the first with a good harvest, that covered the needs of the farming community and the second with severe crop shortfalls due to drought and, consequently, loss of self-sufficiency with regard to food and loss of cash income from sales of crops. The results show that cattle, and to a lesser degree sheep and goats, form an integral part of the social-cultural life and the household economy. The livelihood of households is based on both crop and animal husbandry. In times of crop shortfalls both selling livestock, especially cattle, and hiring out the own labour force are the most important alternative resources of households to earn the money needed to compensate the repercussions of crop failure. However, the possibilities to make a living with activities other than crop and animal husbandry are very limited in the remote and semiarid study area. The investigation shows that there is need to further develop potential strategies for nutritional risk management by taking into account the social, cultural and economic habits of the population, specially in the field of animal husbandry but also in farming and marketing.

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Sudan was traditionally one of the world's largest producers of long-stable cotton and medium producer of medium-stable cotton. In the Sudan cotton has been the most important cash crop and foreign-currency earner for the past 50 years. During the seventies and up to late eighties cotton alone contributed between 45 and 65 percent of the total foreign-currency earnings however, it contribution dropped below 3% in 2001. In addition, cotton is considered as a main source of income for about 13 percent of the total labor-force. In spite of the economic importance of cotton for the Sudan economy big fluctuations in cotton area, production and yield occurred. Gezira Scheme (GS) contributes about 60 % of the total cotton produced in Sudan. The study answers the following research questions (1) What are the main driving factors and the reasons for the decrease of cotton production in the GS; (2) Is the cotton yield variability among the tenants in the GS due to random variability or due to the tenants’ technical inefficiency or scheme management factors? What are the main factors behind technical inefficiency?; (3) What are the economic losses as a result of cotton production variability in the GS? and (4) If the tenants are free to choose what to produce, what are the crop combinations they will select and how close are they to the current crop combination?

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Assessment of Socio-economic and Environmental Implications

Obtaining enough food for survival is a fundamental challenges in most of the developing countries. The livestock sector is of paramount importance to sustain the agrarian production, where mixed farming system is practiced. The possibility of increasing the consumption of animal protein in such countries requires an acceleration of the livestock’s productivity. One of the most feasible solutions in this regard is to enhance the efficiency of livestock farmers where intervention of development projects play decisive role. This book presents a stringent analyses of such interventions on socio-economic and environmental aspects at households level. The major issue is to isolate the impact on innovation in smallholder peasants, food self-sufficiency, natural resource management, institutional development, gender equity and production efficiency due to such intervention, and its overall effect on the living standard of beneficiaries and other stakeholders of the community. Besides, spillover impact was considered in terms of physical changes due to combined effect of activities transferred into the periphery as percolation. A With-Without project evaluation approach was applied as a research methodology. The findings are based on the primary information collected through household survey. The collected cross sectional information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, econometric models and qualitative analyses. The empirical findings obtained from such analyses confirm a substantial contribution of a project intervention as long as the activities are institutionalized for the sustainability of the accrued benefit over time.

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Food insecurity is an important element in the poverty that is plaguing Nigeria. Dealing with the issue entails tackling the problems faced by the principal food producers, which are the rural smallholder farmers. Using the farming systems approach, this book focuses on an exposition of the underlying factors affecting food insecurity and poor living standard among rural families in the humid zones of Nigeria. Through multistage stratified sampling procedure, primary data was collected by field survey from 31 villages in Osun state. The analytical tools include descriptive statistics, econometric and the goal-programming model. Specific peculiarities of each household member was utilised for deriving calorie balance. Results show that poor living standard and food insecurity could be adduced to poor infrastructure, low input and resource availability. 59% and 41% of the households are calorie sufficient and deficient respectively. Modelling results reveal the negative impact of increasing risk factors that guides production decisions and some level of resource under utilisation and misallocation in actual practice partly adduced to risk avoidance behaviours therefore, the greater potential for farm families to be able to meet up with their food security goals through appropriate actions. Impact assessments show the need for improved cropping practices, credit facilities, land tenure changes and changes in the cocoa sector to improve food security.

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The Case of West Tocantins

The rainforest zone in Brazil is under pressure through encroachment of farming and other sectors, which lead to ecologically unbalanced development, reducing the living potential of indigenous communities. The Bananal Island wetland is located in the transition zone between the Amazon and Cerrado (Savannah) ecosystems. The conflicting interest of the rural actors on using the natural resources lead to the demarcation of most of its territory as Indigenous Lands. This book attempts to analyze the socio-economic potentials of indigenous and non-indigenous systems presented in the adjacent zone of Bananal Island, along the Javae River. Special emphasis is given to the relationship of the indigenous communities with smallholders expelled out of the island and large-scale farm and ranch systems; and how this relationship may affect the living standard of the two less economically favorable groups. The results show that for indigenous communities some of the actions of the government had improved a few components of their living standard raising them up to the level of smallholders and the fishermen found in the region. The smallholders were allocated in settlements. The poor infrastructure of the settlement studied and the absence of financial incentives for agricultural activities push these smallholders to establish small enterprises in order to guarantee their living standard. The large-scale farms and ranches are mainly market oriented and are dependent mostly on the national economic fluctuation. They are high dependent of external labour to run their production activities. There is a concern about the scarcity of specialized technical labour in the region. The training of the smallholders could fill this gap and avoid future encroachments into Bananal Island as occurred in the past.

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This book presents an analysis of the impact of animal production in mountainous farming systems development in Northwest of Vietnam. The research areas are located in a typical transect in the mountainous zones. This transect represents a gradient from urban to remote areas, with changes in production condition (livestock types and breeds), degree of market orientation (feed stuffs), and socio-economics conditions (knowledge and production habit) due to different ethnic groups of the families. Information used came from interviews in panel survey, collected twice over two years.

The descriptive analysis, historical analysis and comparative analysis show that family resources become increasingly scarce along the gradient from the market proximity to remote areas. The economic success follows the same trend with increasing remoteness, and the farm, off-farm and family income decrease. The study also found a relation between resource availability for crop and livestock and the size of the land. The livestock contribution to income is important for the bigger farms with a low production potential as well as for the small farms with high production potential. Fluctuations of resource availability and use over two years show that the resources are over-used. There is increasing utilisation of land in order to increase income while land quality seems to decrease. Results of regression models show that a small change in the animal sector impacts greatly the income and living standard of the families, offering an opportunity for the development of mixed farming systems, and hinting at its high potential for their future development. The impact analyses of potential future strategies were made using linear programming models at family level. Increasing the capacity of stables in order to increase herd size as well as comprehensive veterinary care could improve income. Improving income for families in remote areas is usually very hard to achieve.

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