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Kommunikation & Beratung

Insights into Farmer Citizen Science in Honduras

Farmer-participatory methods have become widespread in agricultural research for development. Researchers and donors have increasingly recognised that highly diverse local challenges to agricultural production, including climate change, may not be solved by top-down generic approaches, but require farmer-selected solutions. In participatory variety selection (PVS), for example, groups of farmers jointly select locally suitable germplasm varieties. But such a group-based participatory approach to variety selection for climate adaptation also brings new limitations: Farmer attendance is often limited, a shared plot does not always represent every participant’s on-farm conditions well, and PVS is difficult to scale because it relies on organised farmer groups and high external facilitation efforts.

This study explores a pathway to out-scaling PVS by using new methods from citizen science, which has become popular recently especially in ecological and environmental research. In Crowdsourcing Crop Improvement (CCI), many farmers perform a small experiment on their farm by growing small quantities of just three alternative crop varieties, observing their growth along the growing period, and reporting simple observations to researchers. This way, farmers may experientially discover a variety that suits their site-specific needs and preferences better than the current one. Researchers, on the other hand, may use CCI as a research tool to screen new crosses and validate new varieties by farmer-generated data from a large range of locations and environments, as well as to disseminate genetic diversity in the landscape. Based on intensive fieldwork in four regions of Honduras, Central America, and using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, such as choice experiments, this study evaluates CCI for its appropriateness to serve both farmers and researchers.

25.60 EUR

Tradition and Change among the Bakossi of Southwest Cameroon - A Socio-Economic Study

In today’s highly globalised world there is an increasing pressure on local cultures and economies towards conformity. The two dominant forces pushing towards this conformity are Western culture, mainly in its US version, and the capitalist free market ideology. Adaptation processes result all over the world and people experience this as change that is sometimes welcomed and sometimes feared. Especially Sub-Saharan Africa seems very much affected by these developments. Ancient customs are challenged, common conventions are questioned and the loss of tradition is lamented. On the other hand, African societies and their cultures and economies have never been completely static but have been evolving and developing ever since, i.e. change is not something that is per se a new and foreign experience. How then have these societies been coping with the ambivalent experience of tradition and change in the past and how are they coping with it today?

Looking at the Bakossi in southwest Cameroon, in the form of a case study the book is trying to attempt an answer to this question. After presenting the traditional Bakossi economy and society the socio-economic development of the past 130 years is reconstructed and thoroughly analysed, offering fascinating insights into highly intricate and complex processes. Among others, the key actors are identified, their motivations are studied and their multiple interactions are portrayed. The purpose of the book is to provide an adequate understanding of the internal and external forces and dynamics of tradition and change. This is an indispensable precondition for any meaningful intervention towards the comprehensive development of any given society aiming at a holistic improvement of the welfare of its people.

 

 

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The Case of the Nabanhe National Nature Reserve in Yunnan, Southwest China

The People’s Republic of China has experienced tremendous changes in various aspects since its foundation in 1949. The social organization, economic and land policies, as well as size and structure of the country’s population have all been in transition. Such drastic changes have profound impacts on people including ethnic minorities and their environment. The same holds true for the Nabanhe National Nature Reserve (NNNR), situated in the Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Xishuangbanna, close to the borders of Laos and Myanmar, and hence a part of the so-called “Greater Mekong Sub-region” (GMS). The prefecture has experienced tremendous changes in the recent decades. Agricultural production systems, land tenure arrangements, social settings, people’s livelihoods, and the cultural heritage experienced and still experience radical transformations. In this context, the environmental balance in the “biodiversity hotspot” region is facing a tremendous challenge. Responsible therefore are mainly the transition from the collective to private production system (“Household Responsibility System”) starting in the mid-1980s coupled with the introduction of agricultural and technical innovations such as rubber and hybrid varieties as well as the governmental incentives for agricultural mechanization and the usage of agro-chemicals. The considerable difference if compared to the situation in other developing regions on the globe is the breathtaking speed in which this transition occurs. 

This book shows the major findings of an in-depth analysis of the adoption processes of a set of more recent innovations that have been selected as case studies: Rubber, hybrid paddy rice, mechanization, and tea-intercropping systems in the NNNR. The work focuses on adoption processes of model innovations and their impact on people and environment. It presents the main driving and inhibiting forces for or against the innovation adoption. These adoption factors are further presented in detail and analyzed for each selected innovation in order to define the important preconditions for potential future innovations in the region that are more environmentally sound. 

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Mit dem Zerfall der Sowjetunion 1989/1990 entstanden in Russland, siebzig Jahre nach Ende der Stolypinreformen, erstmals wieder private Bauernbetriebe. Ihre Zahl stieg von rund 40.000 Betrieben im Jahr 1990 innerhalb weniger Jahre auf 280.000 Betriebe an. AKKOR – der Verband der bäuerlichen Betriebe und Kooperativen in Russland – wurde ebenfalls 1990 als einer der ersten Verbände Russlands gegründet und setzte sich zum Ziel, sich für den Aufbau der privaten Bauernschaft in Russland und für eine stabile Existenz der bäuerlichen Betriebe einzusetzen.Das Hauptaugenmerk von AKKOR war lange Zeit fast ausschließlich auf die politische Interessenvertretung gerichtet, galt es doch, die Privatbauernschaft gegen die mächtigen sowjetkonservativen Kräfte aus Politik, Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft zu behaupten. Mitgliederbindung und Mitgliederwerbung standen dabei zurück. Die Konsequenz daraus ist ein bis heute geringer Organisationsgrad. Instabile Eigentums- und Rechtsverhältnisse, mangelndes Vertrauen der russischen Bevölkerung, insbesondere im ländlichen Raum, in jede Form von Mitgliedschaft, aber auch wenig Erfahrung in Verbandsorganisation, taten dabei ihr Übriges.Heute, 25 Jahre nach Verbandsgründung kann noch immer nicht von einer auf allen Seiten geduldeten Parallelexistenz der großen Landwirtschaftsunternehmen und der privatbäuerlichen Betriebe gesprochen werden. Nicht zuletzt die Weltwirtschafts­krise 2008, aber auch die langjährige Lobbyarbeit führten AKKOR dazu, dass die bäuerlichen Betriebe in ihrer Bedeutung für die Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft Russlands zunehmend in das Interesse der russischen Politik rücken. AKKOR hat 

deshalb heute die Chance, einen nachhaltig stabilen Bauernverband aufzubauen. Die Entwicklung und schrittweise Umsetzung eines mitgliederorientierten Dienstleistungsangebotes erscheint dafür dringend notwendig. Der DBV stellt bereits seit 2009 im Rahmen des Kooperationsprogramms des BMEL dem russischen Partnerverband sein Know-how zur Verfügung. Das Kooperationsprojekt DBV-AKKOR, mit finanzieller Unterstützung des BMEL, ermöglichte die vorliegende Untersuchung.Dieses Buch füllt eine wichtige Lücke, ist ein wichtiger Beitrag zur deutsch-russischen Kooperation, und ergänzt die Literatur zu interkulturellem Management und zur Organisationsentwicklung in Transformationsländern.

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Das Buch zeigt Ergebnisse einer ersten bundesweiten Evaluierung von Beratung im ökologischen Landbau aus Sicht der Nutzer. Es gibt einen Überblick zur Beratungssituation in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und greift die Beratungsleistungen heraus, die von hauptamtlichen Beratern erbracht werden. Im Rahmen der Untersuchung wurden Qualitätsmerkmale für Beratung definiert. Inwieweit diese in der Beratung tatsächlich erfüllt waren, das haben die befragten 598 Öko-Erzeuger für die Jahre 2011-2013 beurteilt. Die Ergebnisse zur Inanspruchnahme geben Aufschluss darüber, wie viele Erzeuger Beratung in Anspruch nahmen und bei welchen Anbietern, wie viele Stunden nachgefragt wurden, auch welche Anlässe zur Beratung führten und welche Themen behandelt wurden. Geprüft wurde, inwiefern die Inanspruchnahme abhängt von den eingegangenen Bindungen zu den Anbieterorganisationen, der empfundenen betrieblichen Situation sowie von der Unternehmerpersönlichkeit des Betriebsleiters. Das Buch liefert schließlich Empfehlungen für die Beratungsanbieter wie z.B. Qualitätsmerkmale, die zur Verbesserung der eigenen Arbeit bzw. zur Evaluierung herangezogen werden können. Es werden Hinweise für Politik und Agrarverwaltungen der Bundesländer gegeben und schließlich erfahren praktisch tätige Öko-Erzeuger Qualitätsmerkmale, an denen sie gute Beratung erkennen können.

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A case study of Iran

While ecological sustainability of organic agriculture (OA) has been frequently investigated, there are limited studies on its social sustainability, especially in developing countries. It seems OA proponents disregard and neglect the socio-economic aspects of sustainable development. Therefore, it is also important to acknowledge that in addition to ecological risks and benefits, there are also social risks and im- pacts. The contribution of OA to achieve socially sustainable development in developing countries (Iran as an example) is the focus of this book. Since this study, more specifically, aims to assess the social impacts and risks of OA, a hybrid model combining social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA) to form a new approach called ‘Risk and Social Impact Assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced.

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A case study of the Oued el Maleh valley outside of Casablanca

The field research of the Oued el Maleh valley situated in the periphery of Casablanca, Morocco was selected to study the direct relations between urbanization and peri-urban farmers. This agricultural valley counts many small-scale mixed-farming family farms that are in relation with urban dwellers visiting the valley during the weekends. But the rapid urbanization of Casablanca and Mohammedia mean that the valley will probably change in the near future. How to bring closer peri-urban small-scale farmers and urban dwellers to better integrate farmers into the urban planning system? 

The method used to apprehend urban-rural dynamics within the valley is prospective scenarios for which variables were selected to take into account urban and rural dynamics and public policies aspects of the territory’s development. These scenarios enable us to better understand the impacts of urbanization on agriculture and to determine which type of urbanization will lead to which type of urbanized agriculture. The scenarios highlight possible evolutions of peri-urban agriculture and emphasize at the same time the possible urban-rural synergies which could exist according to the type of urbanized agriculture. This makes it easier to integrate the rural aspects into the political and technical aspects of urban planning and to bring about participation of the concerned rural population.

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Eine Fallstudie in Baden-Württemberg

Mit über 30 Interviews mit landwirtschaftlichen Betriebsleiterinnen konnten vier verschiedene Gruppen von Betriebsleiterinnen erkannt werden. Die Betriebsleiterinnen sind in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß in die Arbeiten und in die Verantwortung der Betriebsführung involviert. 

Vor allem die Gruppe der sogenannten „Vollzeitbetriebsleiterinnen“ ist mit enormen Herausforderungen konfrontiert. Dazu gehören oft Konflikte innerhalb der Familie, Probleme in der Partnerschaft, die Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Betrieb, Urlaub und Freizeit, die Handhabung von Technik und Fragen der Selbst- und Fremdwahrnehmung. 

Aber auch die Teilzeitbetriebsleiterin, die Betriebsleiterin im Nebenerwerb und auch die helfende Betriebsleiterin sehen sich mit den Fragen um die eigene Lebensführung, Partnerschaft und Bewältigung der Arbeitsaufgaben konfrontiert. 

Betriebsleiterinnen werden kaum als eigene, obgleich differenzierte Gruppe wahrgenommen. Fragen der Interessensvertretung, von Unterstützungs- und Bildungsangeboten, stellen sich in dieser Perspektive jedoch neu. 

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Case studies among different ethnic groups in Vietnam and Thailand

Local soil knowledge, or ethnopedology, combines elements of natural and social sciences in a holistic way. Considering local people’s opinions, it is seen as a key factor to develop and implement sustainable agriculture – especially in countries where its application failed due to top-down decisions by the government.

This book combines the studies on local soil knowledge conducted within the framework of the German-Thai-Vietnamese research project SFB 564, also known as The Uplands Program. It analyzes the local soil knowledge of the main hill tribes in the SFB’s study regions in Thailand and Vietnam. Ethnopedological results are compared to pedological data to evaluate the depth of local knowledge.

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While silage and hay making are ancient strategies to overcome periods of forage shortage in temperate climates, it is hardly practiced in the tropics and subtropics. This study contributes to the hitherto scarce information about the impact of extension interventions on the adoption of forage conservation technologies. The study forms part of a BMZ-funded CIAT project entitled ‘Demand-Driven Use of Forage in Fragile, Long Dry Season Environments of Central America to Improve Livelihoods of Smallholders’. The study evaluates the adoption of silage and hay technologies as result of participatory research and extension interventions in Honduras. Two silage promotion strategies, namely promotion of innovation (PI) and promotion of adoption (PA), applied to different adoption stages, are distinguished in order to evaluate how and in which situations extension activities can reach higher impact. An emphasis is on the potential of little bag silage, e.g. as a tool for participatory silage research and extension. Moreover, the effect of feeding different farm-produced conserved forages on livestock production and profitability is assessed using participatory on-farm experiments as well as a system approach.

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Case Study from Nabanhe National
Natural Reserve in South-West China

Even a cursory visitor of rural areas in China will notice the transformation which is characteristic of what has been and still is happening even in remote areas of China. The pace of these changes can only be described as breathtaking: whole regions which until recently have been largely under traditional land-use systems are changing to a highly commercialised, private profit oriented agriculture.

This paper presents the basic findings of an in-depth analysis of the knowledge-flow processes of a set of more recent innovations, which have been chosen as cases studies: rubber, hybrid paddy rice and Yunnan hemp in the Nabanhe National Natural Reserve (NNNR). The NNNR is located close to the borders of Laos and Myanmar. As elsewhere in China, farming systems, land tenure systems, household economies, social life and cultural traditions in the NNNR are in transition, and ecological balance and biodiversity are meeting tremendous challenges. 

This work focuses on the innovation and modification of agricultural knowledge. It observes the changes within the agricultural knowledge system, identifies the external entities providing new agricultural knowledge and mechanisms of agricultural knowledge flow and dissemination within communities. It analyses dissemination conditions, e.g. social networks, opinion leaders and public space, and compares the results of different mechanisms for internal and external agricultural knowledge flows in order to further determine the characteristics of efficient dissemination.

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Local Interests and Conflicts in Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia

The environmental conservation policies and practices puzzle policy-makers, practitioners, and scientists alike. The case of Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly intriguing. This region suffers most from environmental problems including loss of biodiversity, deforestation, soil erosion, and desertification. Pastoralists, farmers, and urban dwellers have sensed the resulting stresses in different ways. Many of the governments of the respective countries in the region have taken mainly technical measures to reverse the problems. The governments take protected areas as policy instruments for biodioversity and wildlife conservation. Nevertheless, the achievements are often not to the level of the expectations as specified in the policy documents.

This book is based on a study of the protected areas of Ethiopia by taking the Nech Sar National Park as key case. Ethiopian wildlife conservation policy prohibits direct uses of the land and other natural resources from national parks. This approach resulted in conflicts between conservation authorities who follow the national exclusive conservation policies and local people who use the resources for their livelihoods. The Nech Sar NP had experienced more than about thirty years of governance (since 1974) in this manner. In addition to lack of success over the decades in conservation, a long-term management contract by an international nongovernmental conservation organization, African Parks Foundation, which had sufficient financial and personnel capacity, is failed after three years. Based on the findings of the empirical study, the book clearly and concisely presents lessons learned along with future policy and research directions for Ethiopia. The book also shows applicability

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Recent Development of Policy and Implementation

Vietnam has made a remarkable achievement in poverty reduction, with the number of people living below the poverty line falling from 58% in 1993 to 29% in 2002. In addition to the “Doi moi” policy, which introduced the shift from central planning to market economy, and poverty alleviation programs, the official establishment of the public agricultural extension system in 1993 has also contributed to this achievement. Since the official establishment of the public extension system in 1993 with the issuance of Decree 13, the public extension policy has been renewed and improved. In 2005, after 12 years of development of agricultural extension, the government issued Decree 56 to replace Decree 13. The most recent extension decree, Decree 02, issued in 2010, shows the government's continued effort and engagement in improving the countries’ extension situation.

The study overall aims at analyzing the recent development of policy and implementation of public agricultural extension in the NMR of Vietnam by connecting two elements of the policy process, i.e. policy formation and policy implementation. From the study, conclusions and suggestions about public extension policy change for more successful and efficient extension implementation are presented.

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Analyzing Linkages with Farmers’ Livelihoods

Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) serve as subsistence food, cash crops and as a ‘safety net’ for the rural poor around the world. They are especially important in China, which is the largest NWFP producer, processor and trader in the world, with millions of small-scale farmers participating in these value chains. 

Utilization and trade of NWFPs contribute in multiple ways to the development and economic growth of participating small-scale farmers. By selling collected or produced NWFPs, farmers become part of a value chain that links them to consumers on local, national, international or ethical/alternative markets. These different markets have very different influences on a farmer’s livelihood. 

This book is concerned with the extent to which farmers are able to participate in and benefit from involvement in different NWFP value chains. Linkages between markets and small-scale farmers in local, national and international, as well as alternative value-chains are compared to reveal which approaches are more beneficial for farmers and therefore justify support from consumers and development partners.

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Das wirtschaftende Paar im Fokus der Landwirtschaftlichen Familienberatung

Der gesellschaftliche Wandel rüttelt an den Grundfesten bäuerlicher Identität. Häufig sind betriebliche, familiäre, finanzielle oder gesundheitliche Existenznöte die

Folge. Die Landwirtschaftlichen Familienberatungen und Sorgentelefone leisten hier einen unverzichtbaren Beitrag zur Humanisierung des Agrarwandels. Sie helfen Bäuerinnen und Bauern, als Personen im Wandel zu bestehen, eigenständige Lösungen zu entwickeln und gemeinsam mutige Schritte zu gehen.

Für hilfreiche Beratung ist es unabdingbar, bäuerliche Familien in ihrer geistig-emotionalen Situation zu verstehen. Dabei ist die 3.000 Jahre alte griechische Oikos-Idee mit dem Ehepaar als Kern der Familienwirtschaft auch heute noch grundlegend. Verbunden sind damit häufig tradierte Vorstellungen von einer „guten Ordnung“. Daraus ergeben sich vielschichtige Konflikte im heutigen Zusammenleben auf den Höfen. Bäuerliche Haltungen sind jedoch auch eine wichtige gesellschaftliche Ressource, Stichwort Nachhaltigkeit.

Auf der Basis einer historischen Analyse entwickelt die Autorin ein systemisches paarzentriertes Modell als Hilfsmittel für die landwirtschaftliche Familienberatung. Sie verfolgt damit das Ziel, die Kommunikation in bäuerlichen Familien zu verbessern und eine lebensdienliche Verbindung zwischen Tradition und Moderne zu ermöglichen.

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In the uplands of northern Vietnam, traditional pig production plays a vital role in supporting farmers’ livelihoods as well as in their cultural life. Despite the rapid development of the pig production most pigs are still kept in traditional livestock husbandry systems. A detailed analysis of actual management practices may contribute to the improvement of extension services for farmers to help smallholders to improve the pig husbandry of specific breeds. This book seeks to systematically examine smallholder pig keepers’ management practices as well as their underlying knowledge backgrounds and knowledge networks. The present study combined qualitative and semiqualitative data collection methods in order to examine pig husbandry management practices and to determine smallholder pig keepers’ underlying rules from the farmers’ point of view.

The study is part of a research subproject entitled ‘Community-driven breeding and management programmes building on local resources, local knowledge and organisation opportunities at village, regional and national level’ embedded in the Thai-Vietnamese-German Collaborative Research program ‘Sustainable land use and rural development in mountainous regions of Southeast Asia’ project, known as the Uplands Program (SFB 564), funded by the German Research Council (DFG).

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Potentials of Sustainable Value Chain Development

The term “Livestock Revolution” stands for an increasing demand for animal source food resulting from changes in peoples’ diets and consumption behavior, especially in developing and threshold countries. This, in turn, leads to a rapidly growing livestock production which – theoretically – holds an enormous potential for the development of smallholder livestock producers in those countries, who are often considered to be the (future) winners of the Livestock Revolution.

Using the example of smallholder pig and chicken production systems in Colombia and Nicaragua, the value chains these producers belong to, as well as the individual business models they follow, are assessed to evaluate critically smallholder livestock producers’ real potential for participation in the Livestock Revolution. More than 850 interviews with the different value chain stakeholders in both countries suggest that, despite a rapid increase in demand for animal source food, smallholder producers are lagging behind and have so far not achieved to keep the market shares they had few years ago. Shrinking market shares make them become the losers of the Livestock Revolution – in both the short but even more the long run. This book explains why and to whom market shares are getting lost. It also gives concrete examples on how smallholder business models and value chains could be improved in the future.  

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Facing Uncertainty in Agricultural Innovation

Risk and uncertainty have often been considered major reasons for a reduction in the rate of adoption of innovations. However, this subject is still in the process of gaining prominence in post-socialist regimes such as Vietnam, where a profound economic liberalization process launched in 1986 has opened the way for relatively independent decision-making and reduced the number of authoritarian diffused innovations, thus providing smallholders with new opportunities. Hence, this book seeks to discuss optimization strategies in farmer learning and knowledge acquisition given the financial, organizational and socio-cultural restrictions of uplands areas in Vietnam. Associated with this is the question as to how upland smallholder farmers can organize themselves and learn towards reducing uncertainty in the innovation adoption process which is further addressed in the core part of this study. Likewise, collective approaches towards knowledge generation and diffusion are explored as viable options to reduce uncertainty through information.

The study forms part of a research project entitled ‘Potential and Constraints of Participatory Research Approaches for Sustainable Development in the Mountainous Regions of Southeast Asia’ (subproject A1), which is embedded within the broader framework of a German-Thai-Vietnamese collaborative research program (SFB 564) called The Uplands Program. As a sub-project with a strong socio-psychological orientation within the broader project framework, A1 seeks to explore how people can best be integrated into innovation processes and how various innovations developed within other sub-projects can be disseminated to farmers.

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Organization of Planting Material Supply
and Produce Marketing

What options are there for farmers in East Africa to improve their gains from agricultural production? Using the example of the banana, the author empirically examines two approaches. First, planting material options are checked, with a focus on biotechnologically fortified plantlets, and then secondly, group marketing endeavors of banana producers are taken into focus. The analysis of the case studies is embedded in a review of literature on the East African banana system. 

Evidence from the field suggests that, despite considerable efforts by development agents, biotechnologically fortified banana plantlets have not achieved a breakthrough in terms of adoption by banana system stakeholders so far. Looking especially at banana tissue culture plantlet hardening nurseries, this book illuminates some of the reasons why adoption rates are not picking up despite the seemingly obvious advantages of the material.

Apart from the planting material option, improvements in the position of banana farmers can be achieved through collective action. Beneficial effects, both financial and social, could be verified for the case of Ugandan banana farmer marketing groups. These groups tended to have several other purposes besides banana marketing. Information of ungrouped farmers and buyers, and their rationale, are compiled and contrasted with the grouped respondent’s estimations, drawing a comprehensive picture of the situation. Giving a critical, but generally optimistic overview over major elements of the East African banana system, this book is aimed at sparking further discussions among current stakeholders and making it easy for readers new to the subject to gain first insights into the topic.

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Eine vergleichende Bewertung der Situation in Brandenburg

In Brandenburg ist die Beratung privatwirtschaftlich organisiert. Wie unter diesen Bedingungen Beratung zu Cross Compliance Themen stattfindet, wurde in der vorliegenden Evaluierungsstudie im Auftrag des Landwirtschaftsministeriums von Brandenburg vergleichend untersucht. Auf Grundlage von Experteninterviews in ausgewählten EU- Ländern und Bundesländern werden verschiedene Beratungsansätze vorgestellt. Anhand der Ergebnisse aus Befragungen von Betriebsleitern und Beratern wird der Brandenburger Ansatz für die Cross Compliance Beratung ausführlich vergleichend charakterisiert und Empfehlungen für eine Weiterentwicklung werden abgeleitet.

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Beratung von (Jung-)Landwirten bei Umstellungsentscheidungen

„Wenn es wirklich so toll wäre, warum machen es dann so wenige?“ Dieses Zitat eines Fachschülers umschreibt die Tatsache, dass in Deutschland bislang nur knapp 6% der Landwirte nach ökologischen Prinzipien wirtschaften. In den Medien hingegen ist das Thema ‚ökologischer Landbau’ omnipräsent vertreten. Denn im Zuge der Veröffentlichung des Weltagrarberichts 2008, der medialen Präsenz von Lebensmittelskandalen und der filmdokumentarischen Aufarbeitungen zum Thema Lebensmittelproduktion gelangt der Öko-Landbau vermehrt auf die agrar- und gesellschaftspolitische Agenda. Trotz des suggerierten Bio-Booms stellen die Landwirte nur zögerlich ihre Betriebe um und für viele Junglandwirte stellt der Öko-Landbau bislang keine greifbare Option für die Ausrichtung ihres zukünftigen Betriebes dar.

Diese Entscheidungssituation stellt ein interessantes Untersuchungsfeld dar, um es aus Sicht ökolandwirtschaftlicher Beratungsanbieter zu betrachten. Die Studie offenbart, wie sich Praktiker und Junglandwirte mit der Verhaltensinnovation ökologischer Landbau auseinander setzen und nennt darauf aufbauend Möglichkeiten für Berater, wie die Umstellungsentscheidung zu begleiten ist. Der Fokus der Studie liegt dabei auf der Abwäge-Phase, d.h. bevor der (Jung-)Landwirt sich endgültig für oder gegen eine Umstellung entschlossen hat. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass unterschiedliche Typen von Fach- und Meisterschülern sowie Praktikern existieren, wonach die Ansprache der Berater auszurichten ist. Dies kann den Einstieg in die Beratung erleichtern und einen ergebnisoffenen, individualisierten Prozess einleiten.

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Experiences with Intensification Domains and Local Knowledge Systems in West Africa

How to promote legume-based technology in West African savannas? This question unavoidably leads to two further questions “why to promote these technologies?” and “Do farmers ever want to use these technologies as researchers wish?” The willingness of farmers to use a new technology is traditionally assessed either by participative, – i.e. farmers’ empowering approaches –, or by normative methods, which are per-se extractive, thus farmers disempowering. While participative methods directly reflect research priorities that are felt and directly expressed by farmers, they are ill-suited for making generalisation except via endless case studies for collecting passively farmers’ wishes here and there. On the contrary, normative methods assume a causal relationship between measurable factors and farmers’ needs. Consequently, normative methods are susceptible to reach a higher degree of generalisation, however by reducing farmers to passive actors, who just adapt themselves to external circumstances without own perspectives.

The present study is an attempt to resolve this dichotomy and to assess the acceptability of herbaceous legume options both from farmers’ circumstances and knowledge systems. By evidencing farmers’ knowledge as the intervening variable that mediates the influence of farmers’ circumstances on legume adoption, this study provides refreshing insights in the reasons for the limited uptake of legume-based technologies in the West African savannas. It further shows the ways towards the appropriate targeting of herbaceous legume species for the diverse intensification systems prevailing in the target area, actor-centered methods to demonstrate the benefits of these legumes and institutional changes needed to ease the promotion of herbaceous legume in West Africa.

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In einer von Abwanderung und Alterung geprägten ländlichen Region dreht sich der Alltag meist um Fragen des Verlusts: Schulen und Dorfläden werden geschlossen, Vereinen fehlt der Nachwuchs und manche Häuser im Dorf drohen zu verfallen. Mit den peripheren Räumen Nordostdeutschlands und seinen Dörfern wird daher oftmals ein negatives Bild assoziiert. Wie Dörfer versuchen dieser Abwärtsspirale entgegen zu wirken, wird anhand von Beispielen aus Brandenburgischen Dörfern untersucht. Das sogenannte soziale Kapital, d.h. die inner- und überdörfliche Vernetzung der Dorfgemeinschaften, das bürgerschaftliche Engagement zum Erhalt der Lebensqualität und die dörfliche Kommunikation stehen im Zentrum der theoretischen Überlegungen und der empirischen Analysen. Auch wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob sich die Dörfer - demografisch betrachtet - überhaupt vom Gesamtraum unterscheiden.

Zahlreiche Fallbeispiele aus der Brandenburger Peripherie bilden den empirischen Rahmen dieser Arbeit. Die mit Hilfe von studentischen Teams durchgeführten PLA-(Partizipation-Lernen-Aktion)-Projektwochen zeigen als aktivierende Befragung hohe praktische Relevanz für die beteiligten Dörfer. Sichtweisen und Ideen von über 400 Bewohnerinnen und Bewohnern wurden in sogenannten Küchentischgesprächen erfasst. Auf der Suche nach lebendigen Dörfern trifft die Autorin eine Vielfalt von Akteuren, hinterfragt ihre Motivationen, identifiziert Bedürfnisse und brisante Themen und analysiert die Voraussetzungen, unter denen der Prozess der Lebendigkeit aufrecht erhalten werden kann. Die Herausforderungen dörflicher Governance liegen in der gesellschaftlichen Anerkennung kleinteiliger, dezentraler Ansätze und Lebensformen und in der Zusammenarbeit einzelner Dörfer auch über die Gemeindegrenzen hinaus. Die Erschließung externer Ressourcen zur Bewältigung von Krisen und Konflikten und zur Förderung der Zusammenarbeit zwischen dörflichen Gruppen sind Bereiche, in denen auch lebendige Dörfer noch Entwicklungspotenzial haben. Die Analyse schließt mit einer Synopse von Lebendigkeits-Indikatoren, die das methodische Handwerkszeug für die Dorfentwicklungsberatung bereichern.

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Upgrading von Kleinbauern in Gourmetkaffeeländern am Beispiel von Kolumbien und Ekuador

Latte Macchiato und Moccachino sind zum festen Bestandteil unserer Genussmittelkultur geworden. Die Welle der sog. Spezialitätenrevolution schwappte von den USA in das alte Europa: die Konsumenten sollen die besonderen geschmacklichen Qualitäten hochwertiger Kaffees erfahren. Wie beim Wein ist der Geschmack von Kaffee an bestimmte ökologische Standorte gebunden. Wer ist eigentlich auf der anderen Seite der Wertschöpfungskette in der Lage, den sog. Gourmetkaffee zu produzieren und zu vermarkten? Wer profitiert davon und wer setzt die Regeln in Bezug auf Qualität und Preise? Kann die Produktion von Gourmetkaffee Armut reduzieren helfen? 
Vier Fallbeispiele aus Kolumbien und Ekuador bilden den empirischen Rahmen, um diese Fragen zu beantworten. In allen Fällen produzieren und vermarkten Kleinbauernorganisationen Gourmetkaffee mit unterschiedlichem Erfolg. Kontrastiert wird ihre Analyse mit dem Beispiel eines Großgrundbesitzers. Die Arbeit identifiziert die Schlüsselfaktoren für eine erfolgreiche Integration in Gourmetkaffeemärkte sowie die einhergehenden Schwierigkeiten. Als Grundlage dient der Wertschöpfungskettenansatz mit den zentralen Aspekten upgrading und governance . Erweitert wird er durch den Sustainable-Rural-Livelihood-Ansatz sowie die Konventionstheorie. Am Ende der Arbeit wird deutlich: Kompetenzerweiterungen der Kleinbauern im Sinne eines empowerment und eine starke corporate social responsability (CSR) seitens der Privatwirtschaft sind die entscheidenden Stellschrauben für mehr Fairness entlang der Kette. Erst unter dieser Voraussetzung kann die Qualitätsproduktion von Kaffee armutsreduzierende Wirkungen zeigen.

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Eine globale Betrachtung

In diesem Buch wird die weltweite Verbreitung der heute wichtigen Rebsorten beleuchtet. Analysiert werden die Gründe für das Vorkommen und die Kultivierung bestimmter Rebsorten in verschiedenen Ländern, wobei 24 Länder, verteilt auf alle Kontinente, in diese Recherche eingingen. Ziel dieser Arbeit war, mit Hilfe von Statistiken der einzelnen Weinbauländer, die Veränderung des weltweiten Sortenspektrums von Rebsorten zu erfassen und zu analysieren. Die Geschichte der Sortenveränderung kann vorrangig auf pflanzenbauliche, betriebswirtschaftliche und marktwirtschaftliche Faktoren zurückgeführt werden. Aufgrund der Globalisierung und der Modernisierung hat sich der Weinbau in den letzten Jahrzehnten im Bereich der Mengenerzeugung, der Qualitätssicherung, des Umweltbewusstseins, der Anbaumethoden, der Kellerwirtschaft und insbesondere in der Vermarktung stark verändert. Dies hat weltweit eine erhebliche Sortenverschiebung verursacht. Einige wenige „Allerwelts-Sorten“ gewinnen globale Marktanteile, dagegen gibt es in Nischenmärkten auch eine weitere Differenzierung durch den Rückgriff auf alte Lokalsorten. 

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Farmer to market (F2M) linkages physically connect smallholder producers to the buyers. This book gives an insight into the different institutional approaches to F2M linkages, and the benefits of such linkages to the market at the household level. F2M linkages increase the market access for smallholder production in contrast with selling surpluses to local markets. Institutional F2M linkages resulted in annual smallholder incomes of US$600 predominantly from sales to different market linkages while food shortages, which occurred at least once a year were reported by 65% of the respondents. Of the institutional linkages, social capital and gender aspects were stronger in the households affiliated to the NGO type institutions and weaker in the private. A higher intensity of coordination of the tri and multi sector partnerships between the three sectors and other sectors is essential to cater for sectoral weaknesses and improve the co-ordination of linkages and farmers livelihoods.  

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The book gives a comprehensive picture of the development history of the agricultural innovation system (AIS) in Vietnam’s Northern Mountainous Region during the last six decades. It provides a critical assessment of the dynamic development of the system in the context of turbulent political changes and diversification of natural, physical and socio-economic conditions in the region. Using a systemic approach, six sub-systems in the AIS – regional context, policy measures, innovations, innovation generation and transfer, diffusion networks & channels, adopters/farmers and adoption – are described qualitatively and analysed critically. The holistic analysis of sector development throughout the recent history of the AIS is presented in depth and perspectives for its further development and improvement are identified. The book offers a wealth of facts and insights to readers, especially to those working on innovation systems and rural development in Vietnam.

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Aquaculture can play an important role in eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, because fisheries have reached their maximum sustainable yield level. The increasing demand of a growing world population will need to be met from aquaculture. More recent efforts to promote fish farming in Africa did not bring about the anticipated impact. The objective of this study is to identify and describe the factors responsible for the adoption and diffusion of Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture and thus, to provide a comprehensive overview that can help the reader to take a decision on the suitability of this innovation in Cameroon and Malawi. 
The book features a combination of qualitative and quantitative social and economic research which is increasingly demanded for explaining complex decision processes such as the adoption of agricultural innovations. It presents new methodologies and critically discusses their suitability for producing meaningful results. 

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Theoretisches Konzept und methodisches Vorgehen

Studien über die Wirkung von Wissen im Handlungsfeld Ernährung verweisen auf eine mangelnde Auseinandersetzung mit den Charakteristika von Wissen. Zudem fehlen geeignete Methoden, subjektives Wissen in Verbindung zum Verhalten zu erfassen. Im Mittelpunkt dieser Studie steht demnach das subjektive Wissen des Verbrauchers, das methodisch mit einem Struktur-Lege-Verfahren am Beispiel des Lebensmittels Ei erfasst wird. Der Einsatz eines qualitativen Verfahrens ist erforderlich, da das subjektive Wissen nicht durch vordeterminierte Variablen erfasst werden kann. Als Ergebnis liegen zunächst 16 subjektive Wissensstrukturen über das Lebensmittel Ei vor, die im Anschluss in einer monologischen Hermeneutik zu fünf intersubjektiven Wissensfeldern - die Produktion, die Zubereitung & Verwendung, das Eiweiß & Eigelb, das Cholesterin und das Osterfest - verdichtet werden. Es zeigt sich, dass das subjektive Wissen an erlebte Situationen gebunden ist und die damit verbundenen Erfahrungen das Verhalten beeinflussen.

Die Bedeutung des subjektiven Wissens für die Informationsgestaltung wird anhand der identifizierten Wissensfelder herausgestellt, so kann der inhaltliche Rahmen, die Relevanzen der Inhalte sowie der Handlungsbezug der Informationen zielgruppengerecht gestaltet werden. Die Gestaltung von Informationen zur Ernährungsaufklärung sollte sowohl Daten über das tatsächliche Ernährungsverhalten als auch über das subjektive Wissen berücksichtigen, um die Aufmerksamkeit der Zielgruppe zu erhalten.

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Gestaltung und Evaluierung von dörflichen Moderationsprozessen

Die freiwillige Kooperation im dörflichen Gemeinschaftsleben ist ein wichtiges Gut, welches das Dorfleben im privaten wie auch im ökonomischen Leben vorwärtsbringt. „Hilfst Du mir, so helfe ich Dir“. Denn durch die Zusammenarbeit können Ziele erreicht werden, die alleine nicht erreicht werden könnten. Ein relativ neues Lösungskonzept im Bereich der Bodenneuordnungsverfahren, das die Kooperationsbereitschaft untereinander nutzen will, ist der „Freiwillige Nutzungstausch“. Dieser ist eine Art partizipative Flurneuordnung, die freiwillig, kostengünstig und schnell funktioniert, wenn alle Beteiligten kooperieren und an einem Strang ziehen. Doch hier liegt oft das Problem. Die für dieses Verfahren notwendige Kooperation hängt im Wesentlichen von zwei Faktoren ab: Zum einen von dem sozialen Miteinander, der sogenannten Kooperationsbereitschaft der Gruppe und zum Anderen von der Motivation von zumindest einer Person, den Tauschprozess vorwärts zu treiben. In diesem Buch werden daher erstmalig nicht nur der normative Ablauf eines Nutzungstauschverfahrens dargestellt, sondern parallel dazu eine empirische Analyse über die Erfolgsfaktoren solcher Kooperationsprojekte aus vier verschiedenen Sichtweisen (der beteiligten Landwirte, der Moderatoren - methodisch sowie technisch - und der Verwaltung) durchgeführt. Parallel dazu wird eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse erstellt, die beweist, dass sich ein Nutzungstauschverfahren nach zwei Jahren amortisieren kann, je nachdem welche neue Bewirtschaftungsstruktur erzielt werden konnte.

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A Case of Participatory Action Research in Honduras

Farmers all over the world face the challenge of increasing pressure on biophysical conditions, climate change and changing market conditions due to globalisation. Technologies like multipurpose forages can improve the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of smallholder production systems in fragile environments, but widespread adoption has not been achieved. This book describes how a study involving 150 farmers designing and conducting experiments with grasses, leguminous crops and shrubs in central Honduras increased insight in aspects related to adoption. Factors connected to farmers’ research objectives were identified, farmer research methods were evaluated and farmers assessed performance of forages.  Entry points such as food security allowed quick farmers’ involvement. Long-term perspectives are essential to effectively improve farming practices. Multipurpose forages integrated in mixed farming systems offer a valuable potential for intensification and income generating opportunities.

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Eine explorative Studie über die Neuentstehung von Obstbrennereien im norddeutschen Raum

«In Norddeutschland gibt es keine Obstbrennereien.» Diese Auskunft erhielt die Autorin gleich mehrfach aus Fachkreisen. Bei ihrer Recherche, die sie durch die norddeutschen Bundesländer Hamburg, Niedersachsen, Schleswig-Holstein und Mecklenburg-Vorpommern führte, fand sie das, was es nicht geben sollte: Obstbrennereien in Norddeutschland. 16 Betriebe hat sie ausfindig gemacht, von denen sich 14 an dieser ersten wissenschaftlichen Studie beteiligten. Ziel der Untersuchung war es, erstmalig Datenmaterial über die Betriebe zu erheben und den Entstehungsprozess zu analysieren. Die Autorin beleuchtet aber auch die besondere rechtliche Situation norddeutscher Obstbrennereien und die daraus resultierenden Aussichten für die Betriebe. Sie kommt dabei zu einem ernüchternden Ergebnis.

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Farmer groups and the diffusion of agroforestry innovations in rural communities of Eastern Africa

The purpose of this book is to explore the contribution of development-oriented farmer groups to the diffusion of innovations in rural communities of Kenya and Ethiopia, and to identify major key drivers of effective innovation diffusion. The research is based on the comparative assessment of four peasant communities that differ in terms of the prevail-ing extension approach and model of farmer group governance.

A profound review of four theoretical frameworks serves to develop a multiple-pathway model of innovation diffusion that amalgamates major concepts of the social network and functional group theories.

The findings illustrate that farmers, through their group and non-group networks and under group-oriented and individual extension alike, exchange information, knowledge, and social pressures that shape their individual adoption decisions. Yet, innovations tend to disseminate more effectively in farmer groups vis-à-vis non-group networks, and the groups tend to be more effective when addressed by extension agents.

The research reveals that the advantage of farmer groups can be attributed to their dimorphic character that combines the bridging and bonding effects of ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ ties. By facilitating the emergence of cohesive relationships among the group members and by simultaneously enhancing the members’ exposure to external information sources group-oriented extension work considerably contributes to foster the diffusion of innovations among farmers. Recommendations refer to the improvement of extension practice and directions for future research.

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An Essay of Assessment by Using Biographic Interviews

Secluded in geographical isolation, Northern Vietnam's Black Tai minority is ridden by poverty, unemployment and insecure food supplies. The present study is part of internationally coordinated research that aims at shedding light at the lagging adoption of agricultural innovation in the mountainous Son La province, thus backing efforts to introduce sustainable agriculture in the area. Narrative autobiographical interviews from Chieng Khoi and other northern Vietnamese communes are analysed to illuminate the socio-cultural background of the resident Black Tai minority and to reveal their attitude towards modernisation. The study also puts villagers' life narrations in perspective, comparing them with information obtained through direct observation, a body of existing literature on the Black Tai ethnicity as well as its historical record. Hitherto unheeded dimensions of the Black Tais' own conception of life emerge. The study reveals new insights into ways of adopting innovation, construing the inconsistencies between the villagers' own predications and more objective sources of information.

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Comparisons of Case Studies from the USA and Germany

What leads to a good relationship between farmers and their financial institutions? This question has been driving the author and therefore he conducted studies in Northern Germany and the US state of Iowa which yielded pertinent case studies that are presented in this book in order to illustrate which proceedings and behaviors endow intact professional relationships between both parties.
Agricultural Operations need financing just like any other business. Some peculiarities like the dependency on soil quality, weather conditions and ecosystem shape along with social, ethical and cultural issues that are related with the production of plants and animals primarily destined for human consumption provide for a unique status of the sector. The behavior of farmers in financial affairs is naturally colored by these factors.
The services of financial institutions like banks are to invest and gather money as well as to facilitate payments. Their business is crucial for functioning economies. Bundling the skills of money lenders and farmers can enable powerful partnerships with high potential for sustainable and profitable businesses that are good for all of us.
Fruitful communication and successful deals between the two are especially important be-fore the context of rising prices for oil, agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, and plant protection along with new tasks for agriculture in the field of energy plant production. The practical, calculation related factors are well known and therefore this book has set it-self the goal of providing some insights into the “human element” of agricultural finance.

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A Case Study of Risk-Management in Northern Vietnam

In Vietnam, ethnic minorities tend to be left behind the socio-economic development of the country. As poor and vulnerable households have a very fragile livelihood system, shocks and crises can destabilised the households for many years. In Vietnam, the public safety net is incomplete and rural households, especially ethnic minorities, tend to be left behind the socio-economic development of the country. Therefore, they have to find their own ways of managing production and livelihood risks. One risk-managing strategy is the formation, maintenance and use of social networks. The role ethnic minority women play within the risk-sharing networks and within society is so far little investigated in Vietnam.

This book deals with support networks and their functioning among different ethnic minorities in the mountains of northern Vietnam. Three households of two ethnic minorities were selected to investigate their risk-management and risk-coping strategies in case of a crisis. Focus was on their support networks used to cope with a crisis, especially on the relationships between network members and on the tangible help provided. A part of the research also investigated the gender roles of the two ethnic minorities like the gender-specific labour division, intra-familiar power structures, and decision-making processes. It was further investigated if gender roles have an influence on the formation of informal risk-sharing arrangements like support networks and if risk-management strategies vary between women and men.

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Options for Enhancing Diffusion of Varietal Diversity of Sorghum in Southern Mali

This book presents research results, which were achieved by working in a ­participatory plant breeding project in Southern Mali coordinated by ICRISAT Mali. The object of the study is the seed and variety management of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], the staple crop in the two project regions Dioïla and Mandé. The strengths and weaknesses of the local seed systems are identified and recommendations are given for the development of the seed sector. Agro-ecological changes in recent decades, such as decreased rainfall and alteration of soil fertility, triggered farmers’ demand for new varieties better adapted to new conditions and complementing their existing variety portfolio. The participatory research approach allowed to analyse the actual situation from a farmer’s perspective and to gain insight into local knowledge concerning variety and seed management. The local seed systems proved to be effective, but new approaches for improvement need to be integrated. Cooperation with research institutions and actors of the seed sector should be strengthened. Increased seed diversity must provide farmers with greater flexibility to meet specific requirements.

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Analysis of Farmer Groups in Búzi District, Mozambique

The creation of farmer groups has been a popular strategy in rural development to work with farmers in an organized way. Being organized as a group strengthens farmers' capacities to access markets and gives them a voice that is otherwise not heard. Being in a group allows people to increase their number of social relations, creates trust and other features of social capital. It has been argued also that high levels of social capital can be transformed into financial capital. Despite the potential of local groups for contributing to rural development and engaging in collective action, it remains questionable, whether social capital - as the “missing link” in development - is compatible with the idea of equity strived for in “gender mainstreamed” development projects. 

 

The present study was carried out in Búzi district, Mozambique examining differences of smallholder farmers who are organized in groups concerning their investments in and benefits from social capital. It is shown that participation in groups empowers farmers to access markets or provide public goods for the community. However, individual benefits such as diversification of social relations, increased likelihood of accessing help, information and services, are not equally distributed. While women invest significantly into social capital male members or group leaders are in a better position to accumulate and make use of these social resources. The common perception that social capital is a public good based on equitable access for all members does therefore not stand empirical tests.

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An Ethnobotanical Survey in the Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

The concept of sustainability involves a comprehensive and integrated 
approach to economic, social and environmental processes. The role of social, political, and cultural factors is now getting more recognition and multidisciplin­ary research is directed towards seeking ways of development according to the specific requirements and potentials of any particular region. 
Efforts to uplift hill economy should accordingly focus on certain issues related to ecological and social capitals. This requires transparent strategies and a sound infrastructure designed in such a way that are efficient, but also simple and up to the convenience of the ordinary people. Local biodiversity and the associated indigenous knowledge are suggested as methods for the establishment and strengthening of a social order that emerges from the people and is based on human dignity. Such an intervention aims to serve under-privileged, submerged and marginalized rural communities. Central to this is the recording and systematic documentation of indigenous knowledge on uses of plant species.
This book communicates an innovative approach demonstrating the importance of plant taxonomy and ethnobotany in the service of meeting human needs through the preservation of indigenous knowledge and conservation of wildlife biodiversity. This is the result of extensive plant collections and interaction with rural communities in the hills of the Garhwal Himalaya, a distinct, remote and least developed socio-economic region of India.

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The Case of Livestock Management in Resource-Poor Environments

This book centres on livestock keepers and the importance of their knowledge and management practices for the system functioning. It starts with a broad literature review on methods that are so far applied to study knowledge, decisions and actions of farmers. It then explores principles of system theory with a focus on information theory and cybernetics that are suitable for an actor oriented approach to agricultural systems.

An analysis approach to agricultural systems, based on 2nd order cybernetics, is developed for the assessment of the information processing in livestock production systems. It contains a control loop model that allows to systematically identify farmers’ observations and the rules behind their management practices. 

Using the example of the knowledge of pastoral camel keepers in northern Kenya it is shown that livestock keepers have rules for routine control, problem solving control and rules for selection where they cannot control input factors. It is also shown where livestock keepers are able to create order in their production system and where and why their possibilities to create order under the condition of uncertainty are limited. Finally, improvements through collaborative learning, monitoring and evaluation are proposed.

Analysing the information processing that underlies the management of the livestock keepers offered insight into their view and their inherent understanding of the production system. The rules the livestock keeper base their actions upon are constitutive for the husbandry system. If livestock keepers change these rules the production system will change. Therefore, this work advocates for collaborative learning approaches to develop resource-poor agricultural systems. 

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Participatory experimentation is expected to contribute to the development of effective, adoptable technologies as well as to sustainable development through the empowerment of the farmers´ own capacities. In many cases, however, the use of participatory techniques and strategies is disconnected, not allowing a holistic view of the process. In addition, participatory techniques are rarely combined in a continuous procedure to show how the results may be used in the classical selection of new technological options and to draw conclusions concerning the wider target population. These were the initial assumptions, which formed the starting point for the study documented in this book. Based on 

experiences in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, this study proposes a framework for integrating farmers as active participants throughout the technology-development process to facilitate the design of forage alternatives better tailored to the broad heterogeneity in the diverse contexts of the three countries. This book assesses the potential benefits and limitations of using the framework and identifies key phases for success in its implementation. It contributes to a new direction in R&D through the transformation of conventional selection of forage varieties over the past decade when it evolved from an economic threshold-oriented approach to a much broader ecological and participatory approach.

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Eine Fallstudie im Kanton Obwalden, Schweiz

Die Initiierung eines Kommunikationsprozesses und seine weitere Gestaltung, die zu einem nachhaltigen Agrarleitbild führen sollen, werden als Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit im qualitativen Sinn bearbeitet. Insbesondere das Fehlen eines allgemeingültigen Verständnisses darüber, was „nachhaltige Landwirtschaft“ bedeuten soll und wie sie erreicht werden kann, machen die Fokussierung auf den Kommunikationsprozess erforderlich. Gleichzeitig gilt es, verschiedenen Interessensgruppen, die neben der Landwirtschaft den selben Raum beanspruchen, gerecht zu werden. Am Beispiel der Obwaldner Landwirtschaft wird mit akteursorientierten Methoden der Kommunikation dargelegt, ob und wie ein Konsens zwischen allen Beteiligten über die Ziele und Maßnahmen einer nachhaltigen Landwirtschaft erreicht werden kann. 

Mit dem zweiten Schwerpunkt, der statistischen Verhaltensmodellierung zu drei umwelt- und tierfreundlichen Bewirtschaftungs- und Haltungssystemen, kann neben den Variablen Einstellungen, sozialer Druck und Verhaltenskontrolle in statistisch signifikanter Weise die Bedeutung der Kommunikation auch quantitativ aufgezeigt werden. Mit der theoriegeleiteten Verhaltensmodellierung wird eine sozialpsychologische Verhaltenstheorie überprüft und um die Variablen Kommunikation und Informationssuche erweitert.

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Extension researchers and practitioners worldwide are being confronted with a new trend of market orientation. Privatization and commercialization are on the agenda of many extension services. Examples from some industrialized and developing countries show that most farmers tend to prefer private delivery of extension. Mongolia, an agricultural nation that has almost passed the transition to a market economy and attained a GDP-growth between five and ten percent in the recent years, is a suitable place for investigating the possibility to establish private extension in emerging economies. On the contrary to the resource-based system of pastoral animal husbandry, which still shapes the livestock sector of the country, the semi-intensive dairy farming around the Ulaanbaatar city promises both more demand on and a better ability to pay for extension.

This book reviews the development of dairy farming in Ulaanbaatar, and analyses the current conditions in the dairy sector and the business environment of dairy farms. A sample analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses in the dairy management and the economic performance of the farms. The knowledge of the situation and of farmer’s problems is used for defining the role and functions of dairy extension as well as elaborating extension contents and methods. The consideration of organizational and fiscal issues from the perspectives of both the farmers and the proposed extension service leads to the suggestion of an integrated structure of core extension activities and complementary income-generating services. The vision is then turned into a draft of a pilot project. The final analysis of the study is an investment appraisal, in which the profitability of a dairy extension service in the suggested form is examined.

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Polen gilt als prädestiniert für eine ökologisch ausgerichtete Landwirtschaft. Der langjährig geringe Einsatz von Mineraldünger und Pflanzenschutzmitteln bot optimale Voraussetzungen für viele Umsteller. Im Zuge des EU-Beitritts 2004 stieg die Öko-Fläche in Polen rasant an. Vielen umstellungswilligen Landwirten fehlt es jedoch in dieser Anbauform an Wissen und Erfahrung. Für eine erfolgreiche und langfristige Umstellung ist folglich eine kompetente Beratung unabdingbar. 

Das Buch gibt einen Überblick über den Stand der Öko-Beratung in Polen und zeigt Stärken und Schwachstellen auf. Im Fokus der empirischen Untersuchung stehen dabei die Meinungen und Einschätzungen der Öko-Berater und der Öko-Landwirte. Zentrale Fragen waren: Wie ist die Beratung organisiert, welche Methoden und Ansätze werden verfolgt und welche Themen stehen auf der Agenda ganz oben? Empfinden die Öko-Landwirte das Angebot als zufriedenstellend oder gibt es noch Defizite? 

Im Kontext des Ecological-Knowledge-Systems wird das Öko-Beratungssystem Polens untersucht und es werden mit Zuhilfenahme von Erfahrungen aus der deutschen „Öko-Szene“ Handlungsempfehlungen für Polen formuliert. 

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Alarm, Alarm – so hieß es, als im Februar 2006 die ersten infizierten und verendeten Tiere auf der Insel Rügen gefunden wurden. Aviäre Influenza, so die Diagnose. Den Bildern der Helfer in Schutzanzügen und Atemmasken, sowie der in Plastiktüten verpackten toten Tiere, konnte sich kaum jemand entziehen. Nie zuvor wurde so stark und so eindrücklich über ein Thema berichtet. Mittlerer­weile ist es um das Thema still geworden, die Gefahr besteht weiter, Schutzverordnungen bestehen weiter, Experten stehen weiter in Alarmbereitschaft für den Fall x - eine Herausforderung für die Politik.

Bedrohung erleben wir heute überwiegend durch die Berichterstattung der Massenmedien. Wie aber wirkten die Berichte auf das Gemüt der Bürger? Wie schätzten Bürgerinnen und Bürger das Handeln der Politiker und Behörden ein? Wie verunsichert fühlen sich die Bürgerinnen und Bürger in ihrem Alltag, etwa beim Einkauf von Geflügelprodukten oder im Umgang mit Haustieren? Wird die Gefahr durch übermäßige Berichterstattung kleingeredet? Antworten zu diesen Fragen suchten wird mittels einer Befragung von Bürgerinnen und Bürgern in Süddeutschland und einer Befragung von Landwirten, Journalisten, Mitarbeitern der Ministerien und Forschungseinrichtungen, Ärzten und Apothekern.

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A Case Study in Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany

This book explores communication processes in the development of agri-environmental programmes at the state level in Germany. Communication encompasses participation, feedback and decision-making processes. As voluntary, incentive-based policies, agri-environmental programmes rely on the acceptance of farmers to achieve positive effects. If ‘acceptance’ is a political aim, contents and implementation of programmes must meet the preferences and needs of farmers. Consequently, these preferences and needs must be fed back into the programme development phase as early as possible. However, institutionalised feedback mechanisms and interactive forms of participation are lacking normally. Acknowledging the bureaucratic constraints, the author proposes a participatory approach that contributes to the improvement of acceptance and legitimacy of agri-environmental decision making. The approach also helps to increase effectiveness and efficiency of related communication processes. It does so by improving procedures in terms of fairness and transparency, as well as improving the information basis by including feedback about agri-environmental schemes through participation. Based on action research experiences in Sachsen-Anhalt in Germany benefits and shortcomings of the approach are discussed.

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Recent History and Actual Effectiveness

The Agricultural Knowledge System (AKS) in Ethiopia is undergoing a significant transformation process as the demands and challenges facing it grow. In this book, the author analyses the history, current status and future direction of the AKS in Ethiopia with a particular reference to the Tigray region, focusing on the overall setting, the linkages between the different actors, and its recent developments. Taking the extension service as a core component of the system, the book analyzes interrelationships between local and formal knowledge systems; identifies institutional, organizational and human capacity constraints facing the system; and assesses the potential of recent policy reforms and institutional developments to improve the effectiveness of the system. The book reflects the specific context in which the system operates, clarifies the extent to which it is institutionally pluralistic and coordinated, assesses its overall strengths and weaknesses, and offers policy recommendations for reorienting it, enabling it to effectively respond to the varied and changing conditions in the country, as well as to the developments and challenges shaping extension globally.

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Case study on information flow in integrated tomato pest management in Kenya

This book addresses network mechanisms and the subsequent role they play in promoting or impeding information flow among the actors involved in tomato integrated pest management (IPM) in Kenya. Limited coordination between farm and non-farm actors in Kenya has contributed to poor IPM information flow and accessibility. Using social network analysis methods the existing emergent interaction structures underlying the organizations are revealed. These structures are not easily detected through formal organization charts, and they are barely researched within integrated pest management in the sub-Saharan region.

In consideration of IPM dynamism and complexity the author further describes how the social network analysis parameters would be utilised in future IPM frameworks through system dynamic models. Overall, institutionalizing the process of making IPM stakeholders’ interaction patterns visible holds potential in improving information accessibility and ultimately enhancing crop pest management.

25.60 EUR

Local-level Institutions Influencing the Conservation and Use of Coffee Forests in Southwest Ethiopia

In this book, Teklu Tesfaye argues that a number of interacting local-level institutions, both formal and informal, influence the conservation and use (management) of coffee forests in South West Ethiopia. Formal institutions were found to have been acting in a unilateral mechanism through top-down and narrow technocratic processes. They offer little chance, if any, for the participation of the ultimate resource users and thus failed to respond to their felt needs. They therefore were not in a position to safeguard coffee forests from the rampant deforestation. Informal institutions, although having played their part some time in the past, have simply been disabled through government measures such as policies and legislations. Those that have withstood the test of time were very much confined in their sphere of influence and most ended up serving social purposes instead of ensuring the management of natural resources. Besides, the linkages between them and formal institutions have been very weak thereby worsening the situation. The ownership of coffee forests has largely remained public. However, the existing public property right system has not been effective enough in producing the resources in sufficient amount to meet the ever increasing demand. Thus, it needs to be revised and  a robust and flexible property right system needs to be put in place.

25.60 EUR

Agrarpolitische Neuerungen stellen Landwirte immer wieder vor geänderte Situationen, die Betriebsanpassungen verlangen. Solche betrieblichen Entscheidungen waren bereits häufig Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen, jedoch meist aus ökonomischer Perspektive. Im Kern dieser empirischen Studie steht dagegen das soziale Umfeld der Landwirte als Entscheidungsfaktor, der mittels verschiedener methodischer Ansätze umfassend untersucht wird. Das Buch geht einerseits der Frage nach, auf welche Weise das soziale Umfeld der Landwirte Einfluss auf ihre individuellen Entscheidungen nimmt. Andererseits werden soziale Prozesse und Strukturen identifiziert, die die Einflussnahme des sozialen Umfelds erleichtern bzw. erschweren. 

Es zeigt sich, dass sozialer Einfluss implizit wirkt und sich an den Haltungen der Landwirte zu bestimmten Themenfeldern, wie beispielsweise einer ordentlichen Landbewirtschaftung, manifestiert. Daraus entsteht ein dörflicher Common Sense, der den Landwirten als normative Grundlage dient und ihnen so Orientierung in ihren Handlungen gibt. Ausgehend von den sozialen Strukturen innerhalb der Landwirte-Gemeinschaft eines Dorfes gibt es Unterschiede in der Wirkung des Common Senses. In Dörfern mit einem stark ausgeprägten Zusammenhaltsgefühl werden nur wenige Abweichungen vom Common Sense toleriert, der individuelle Entscheidungsspielraum ist somit eingeengt. Dagegen ist der Common Sense in eher loseren dörflichen Landwirte-Gemeinschaften schwächer ausgeprägt, hier werden heterogene Meinungen von den Kollegen zugelassen und führen zu einem größeren Entscheidungsspektrum.

25.60 EUR