Capacity Development to Enhance Commercial and Technical Management in Water and Wastewater Utilities
Quality water is essential for public health and the health of the environment. In some places, water quality is better than in other places. Poor quality water that makes people sick, or harms the environment prevents people – and countries – from prospering. The challenge of providing reliable water services grows every day as more and more people join us on this planet.
How shall we meet these challenges and face these realities?
There are so many answers – financial, technical, managerial, political and social. It is probably fair to say that we have often depended too heavily on technical solutions and infrastructure. We are starting to understand that this is not enough. No one solution will make everything work well. The ways in which we manage water sectors or water utilities are a part of the solution – and the skills and motivation of people can make the difference between success and failure.
The IMPACT Guidebook is a contribution to the body of knowledge of how to establish, improve and maintain effective organizations – especially those in the water sector, written by people in the Africa and Middle East North Africa regions for people in these regions and elsewhere in the water sector.
Der Inhalt des Buches ist ausführlich beschrieben auf der Webseite «water-impact-guidebook.net».
A Natural Resource of International and Historical Significance
Situated on the western margin of Europe, Wales has been moulded by the erosional and depositional power of its fresh waters by virtue of high rainfall interacting with extensive regions of bedrock and post- Ice Age glacial debris. The result is a still evolving landscape rich in upland bogs, springs, mountain streams and lakes, rivers running through deeply eroded valleys, and large, lowland rivers meandering across wide floodplains into estuaries and the sea - as Professor Brian Moss says in his preface to the book: “When it comes to freshwaters, the Celts have the best of it.”
Subsequent chapters bring together, for the first time, the combined expertise of a group of scientists whose intimate and collective knowledge of the Welsh aquatic landscape is unparalleled. The authors begin by describing the knowledge base of these important habitats, emphasising the structure and role of their plant, animal, and microbial communities. Upon this are built chapters that review the pioneering role of Welsh river studies in the development of running water science and, very poignantly, assess the high degree of human alteration of the principality’s riverine ecosystems. These are followed by chapters that discuss the need for further scientific study, management, conservation, restoration and education so that future impacts on Welsh waters may be understood and minimised. Throughout the book flows the underlying theme that there has been and always will be a close link between water resources and the development of Welsh society.
The book is data-rich, very well illustrated, and contains a bibliography of over 1,100 references to the scientific literature.
Tidal freshwater wetlands occur in the upper part of estuaries, where fresh water from the river is influenced by tides. Sedimentation is prominent in the tidal freshwater zone; mud flats become elevated and may become fertile agriculture areas after reclamation. Many prominent cities (e.g., Hamburg, Rotterdam, Philadelphia, Washington, DC) were founded in or near tidal freshwater systems, resulting in their loss or degradation. A number of characteristic plant and animal species occur in tidal freshwater wetlands, reflecting their unique biological, chemical, and physical processes. These communities are distributed over different subsystems, such as the river, tidal creeks, reed and bulrush marshes, higher marshes, and various types of tidal swamp forest. Productivity of tidal freshwater wetlands is similar to that of salt marshes but plant and macrofaunal diversity are higher. Sets of case studies illustrate various conditions from Europe and North America. While many tidal freshwater wetlands have disappeared, during the last decades restoration projects have been initiated to conserve this diverse and productive ecosystem.
Comparative Asian Perspectives
The volume provides a comprehensive overview of the principal research findings and policy conclusions, structured broadly in line with our objectives and the implications of our interdisciplinary and comparative methodology. The 22 chapters following the Introduction are divided into six sections, on the basis of coherence and progressively increasing degrees of interdisciplinary integration and comparative analysis. The Section A (Chapters 1-4) provides general description of physical, hydrological and catchment characteristics of the water bodies in the three countries as the f basis for the more detailed analysis that follows. The key conditions for understanding the limnological processes are set by the overall catchment characteristics, its human utilisation and the seasonality of the monsoonal climate. Section B (Chapters 5-9) examines comparative aspects of the aquatic ecosystems, focusing successively on phytoplankton; the regulation of phytoplankton primary production; microbial aspects of carbon dynamics and the detrital food chain; the effects of seasonality on zooplankton populations and status; and the biomass, production and productivity of copepods and cladocerans.
In Section C (Chapters 10-14) the focus shifts to fish ecology. The important themes covered include the innovative use of hydroacoustics for assessing fish stocks; feeding ecology of fish assemblages; ecomorphological aspects of diet; selective feeding of small zooplanktivorous pelagic fish species; and a modelling approach to daily feeding patterns and food consumption in certain fish populations. Section D (Chapters 15-18) addresses fisheries and aquaculture, analysing capture fisheries; population dynamics of non-exploited and under-exploited fish species; population dynamics of commercially important species; and the status and significance of aquaculture. Chapter 18 also examines the socio-economics of aquaculture, thereby providing a useful bridge to Section E (Chapters 19-20) on socio-economics, which comprises detailed surveys of the social economy of fish and fishing in littoral communities, and of fish trading and marketing.
Finally, Section F (Chapters 21-23) attempts to draws together the principal findings and conclusions from each disciplinary area and part of the investigation. This part offers a holistic analysis as the basis for more appropriate policy and management guidelines for the promotion of sustainable resource utilisation. Moreover, Chapter 23 assesses the overall contribution of the study, summarises and explains the principal findings and conclusions, and finally explores the implications for sustainable resource utilisation and management.
10-14 September 2001, Mannheim, Proceedings of the Conference
The 10th International Conference on Rainwater Catchment Systems taking place in Mannheim, Germany between September 10-14, 2001 wants to build bridges:
- Bridges between rural and urban applications of rainwater harvesting,
- Bridges between rainwater harvesting experiences in industrialized and less industrialized countries, and
- Bridges between agricultural and domestic applications of rainwater harvesting.
The participants and organizers of the previous International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference (Petrolina, Brazil July,1999) expressed the wish to hold the next conference in Europe.
Even though Europe has a leading position in using rainwater in households, institutions and industry, it has never before hosted an international rainwater catchment conference. This is a unique opportunity to make European knowledge and experience available and to assist in seeking new ways of co-operation and alliances. Therefore the conference is embedded in the overall event of International Rainwater Days, including a forum, rainwater harvesting in practice, a fair, exhibitions and excursions. All this will give us all a multi-faceted exposure to rainwater harvesting and its many possibilities and applications.
Looking at the developments since the last conference in Brazil, we find an enormous increase in interest and implementation of rainwater harvesting systems worldwide! This is also reflected in the positive attention the conference has drawn. We are pleased about the number of contributions in the form of papers and posters, they give a first impression of what will be discussed during the conference.
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